Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Orchitis / epididymitis

Contributor(s): Kyle Braund, Autumn P Davidson

Introduction

  • Orchitis and epididymitis are occasional problems in dogs, usually occurring together. Orchitis can be due to penetrating trauma with secondary infection, or chronic prostatitis seeding bacteria to the testicles. Orchitis has also been described as a part of many systemic diseases such as distemper, ehrlichiosis, coccidioidomycosis, blastomycosis and brucellosis, but of these only brucellosis is significant as a specific cause of orchitis. Lymphocytic orchitis can also be part of auto-immune diseases such as described in the Beagle, where it is part of multiorgan disease or involving only the testes.
  • Only traumatic orchitis and orchitis due to brucellosis are discussed here.
  • Brucella canis infection is a low risk zoonosis unless immunocompromised animal is present.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Brucella canis, Brucella abortus, Brucella melitensis and Brucells suis have occasionally caused canine infections Brucella canis.
  • Various non-specific bacteria, especially Staphylococcus spp StaphylococcusStreptococcus spp StreptococcusE. coli E coliProteus spp Proteus, and Salmonella infantis Salmonella.

Predisposing factors

General
  • Dog fights.
  • Penetrating wound.
  • Hematogenous.

Pathophysiology

  • The most common form of orchitis involves bite wounds with secondary infection.
  • The cause can be inapparent.
  • Local infection of the testicle due to contaminated bite wounds.
  • Brucella canishas a special predilection for genital tissues Abortion / stillbirth.

Timecourse

  • Usually acute in the case of bite wounds.
  • Acute or chronic in brucellosis.

Epidemiology

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Davidson A P, von Dehm B J, Schlafer D J (2015) Adult onset lymphoplasmacytic orchitis in a Labrador retriever stud dog. Top Comp Anim Med 30 (1), 31-34 PubMed.
  • Hesser A C, Davidson A P (2015) Spermatocele in a South African Boerboel Dog. Topics in Comp Anim Med 30 (1), 28-30 PubMed.
  • Sirinarumitr K, Johnston S D, Kustritz M R et al (2001) Effects of finasteride on size of the prostate gland and semen quality in dog with benign prostatic hypertrophy. JAVMA 218 (8), 1275-1280 PubMed.
  • Atkinson M C (1999) Polyorchidism in a dog. Vet Rec 145 (24), 711-712 PubMed.
  • Dahlbom M et al (1997) Testicular fine needle aspiration cytology as a diagnostic tool in dog infertility. JSAP 38 (11), 506-512 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Feldman E C & Nelson R W (1996)Disorders of the testes and epididymides.In:Canine and Feline Endocrinology and Reproduction.London: W B Saunders. Chapter 27. (A recent broad review.)


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