ISSN 2398-2969      

Old dog encephalitis

icanis
Contributor(s):

Kyle Braund

Simon Platt

Synonym(s): Disseminated encephalomyelitis in mature dogs, subacute diffuse sclerosing encephalitis, chronic dementional distemper


Introduction

  • Thought to be the result of infection with canine distemper virus (CDV) Canine distemper disease.
  • There is some speculation that this form of distemper no longer exists as a spontaneously occurring disease.
  • Signs: cerebral, eg visual deficits, circling, seizures, ataxia, and behavioral changes, eg head-pressing, continual pacing and an incoordinated high-stepping gait.
  • May or may not be history of distemper-like episode in past.
  • Diagnosis: definitive diagnosis may be difficult because of low specificity of signs.
  • Clinical picture is milder than in the acute form seen in younger animals.
  • Treatment: corticosteroids, anticonvulsants.
  • Prognosis: poor - recovery does not occur.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Believed to be caused by a variant of canine distemper virus.

Predisposing factors

General
  • Presently unknown.

Specific

  • Presently unknown.

Pathophysiology

  • The underlying pathogenesis is presently unknown, however, the virus-host cell interaction appears different from that of multifocal distemper encephalitis.
  • Recent studies suggest the ODE is a variant of virulent CDV-induced canine neurological disease that can evolvede novowithin the CNS of subclinically infected dogs in absence of external sources of re-infection.
  • This is a highly cell-associated virus. Viral mutations occur after infection.
  • The virus appears to have a predilection for cerebral cortex and upper brain stem leading to progressive cortical/subcortical signs (the 'clinical signs').

Timecourse

  • This is a subacute/chronic neurologic disorder that may span many months.

Diagnosis

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Treatment

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Prevention

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Outcomes

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Axthelm M K & Krakourka S (1998) Experimental old dog encephalitis (ODE) in a gnotobiotic dog. Vet Pathol 35 (6), 527-534 PubMed.
  • Thomas W B (1998) Inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system in dogs. Clin Tech Small Anim Pract 13 (3), 167-168 PubMed.
  • Evans M B et al (1991) Comparison of in vitro replication and cytopathology caused by strains of canine distemper virus of vaccine and field origin. J Vet Diag Invest (2), 127-132 PubMed.
  • Rima B K et al (1987) Humoral response in dogs with old dog encephalitis and chronic distemper meningo-encephalitis. J Gen Virol 68 (Pt 6), 1723-1735 PubMed.

Can’t find what you’re looking for?

We have an ever growing content library on Vetlexicon so if you ever find we haven't covered something that you need please fill in the form below and let us know!

 
 
 
 

To show you are not a Bot please can you enter the number showing adjacent to this field

 Security code