Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Nictitans gland: prolapse

Synonym(s): Cherry eye

Contributor(s): Alison Clode

Introduction

  • Cause: unknown, may be associated with hypertrophy, adenitis, loose attachments.
  • Signs: nicititans gland protrudes from behind nictitating membrane at medial canthus of eye Nictitans gland prolapse - Bulldog 10 weeks.
  • Significance: gland produces up to 70% of aqueous phase of precorneal tear film. Prolapse and exposure induce adenitis, potentially decreasing tear production. Ocular surface irritation may result from physical rubbing, or low tear production.
  • Diagnosis: clinical signs.
  • Treatment: surgical correction via suturing the gland back into place is necessary (avoid removal as this predisposes to later development of keratoconjunctivitis sicca Keratoconjunctivitis sicca ).
    Do not excise membrana nictitans or its gland unless malignant neoplasia.
    Print off the owner factsheet on Third eyelid gland prolapse Third eyelid gland prolapse to give to your client.

Pathogenesis

Pathophysiology

  • Laxity of attachments of nictitans.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Stanley R G & Kaswan R C (1994) Modification of the orbital rim and anchorage method for surgical replacement of the gland of the third eyelid in dogs. JAVMA 205 (10), 1412-1414 PubMed.
  • Morgan R V, Duddy J M & McClug K (1993) Prolapse of the gland of the third eyelid in dogs - a retrospective study of 89 cases (1980-1990). JAAHA 29, 56-60 AGRIS FAO.
  • Dugan S J, Severin G A, Hungerford C C, Whitley H E & Roberts S M (1992) Clinical and histologic evaluation of prolapsed third eyelid gland in dogs. JAVMA 201 (12), 1861-1867 PubMed.
  • Peterson-Jones S M (1991) Repositioning prolapsed third eyelid glands while preserving secretory function. In Pract 13 (5), 202-3 VetMedResource.
  • Kaswan R L, Martin C L (1985) Surgical correction of third eyelid prolapse in dogs. JAVMA 186 (1), 83 PubMed.


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