Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Necrotizing (leuko-)encephalitis (Yorkshire Terrier)

Contributor(s): Kyle Braund, Simon Platt

Introduction

  • Breed specific (Yorkshire Terrier) Yorkshire Terrier but may be seen in other breeds such as the Miniature poodle Poodle: miniature.
  • Cause: unknown; etiology may be viral.
  • Signs: acute or chronic, progressive neurological signs involving cerebrum and brainstem Encephalitis.
  • Diagnosis: signs, multifocal lesions in cerebral hemispheres on computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Not known.
  • May be breed-associated immune dysfunction.
  • May be viral (no histological or immunocytochemical evidence of bacterial, mycotic, protozoal infection or presence of canine distemper virus or canine herpes virus).

Predisposing factors

General
  • Presently unknown.

Specific

  • Presently unknown.

Pathophysiology

  • Pathological changes are largely confined to white matter of cerebral hemispheres (corona radiata, centrum semiovale, internal capsules), white and gray matter of the thalamus and brain stem which produce clinical signs of a cerebral syndrome, thalamic syndrome and brain stem vestibular syndrome, respectively (pontomedullary/midbrain syndromes may also be seen depending on location of lesions within the brain stem).

Timecourse

  • Chronic, progressive, eg from 6 months to several years.
  • Invariably necessitates euthanasia within 18 months.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • von Praun F, Matiasek K, Grevel V et al (2006) Magnetic resonance imaging and pathologic findings associated with necrotizing encephalitis in two Yorkshire terriers. Vet Radiol & Ultrasound 47 (3), 260-264 PubMed.
  • Kuwamura M, Adachi T, Yamate J et al (2002) Necrotising encephalitis in the Yorkshire terrier: as case report andliterature review. JSAP 43 (10), 459-463 PubMed.
  • Ducot√© J M, Johnson K E, Dewey C Wet al (1999) Computed tomography of necrotizing meningoencephalitis in 3 Yorkshire terriers. Vet Radiol & Ultrasound 40 (6), 617-621 PubMed.
  • Lotti D, Capucchio M T, Gaidolfi E et al (1999) Necrotizing encephalitis in a Yorkshire terrier: clinical, imaging and pathologic findings. Vet Radiol & Ultrasound 40 (6), 622-626 PubMed.
  • Jull B A et al (1997) Necrotizing encephalitis in a Yorkshire terrier. JAVMA 211 (8), 1005-1007 PubMed.
  • Sawashima Y, Sawashima K, Taura Y, Shimada A & Umemura, T (1996) Clinical and pathological findings of a Yorkshire terrier affected with necrotic encephalitis. J Vet Med Sci 58 (7) 659-661 PubMed.
  • Tipold A et al (1993) Necrotizing encephalitis in Yorkshire terriers. JSAP 34 (12), 623-628 VetMedResource.


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