Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Nasal cavity: neoplasia

Contributor(s): Laura Garrett

Introduction

  • 1-2% of all canine tumors.
  • Cause: carcinomas, sarcomas, rarely polyps.
  • Primarily older dolichocephalic dogs.
  • Signs: nasal discharge, epistaxis, sneezing.
  • Diagnosis: radiography, rhinoscopy and biopsy.
  • Treatment: radiotherapy +/- chemotherapy/surgery.
  • Prognosis: depends on nature and location of tumor.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

Predisposing factors

General

  • Age.
  • Dolichocephalic breeds.

Pathophysiology

  • Nasal cavity neoplasia → unilateral nasal discharge, sneezing, epistaxis → destruction of nasal septum → bilateral discharge → expansion → nasal stertor, gagging, coughing.
  • Further local invasion (may) → facial deformity, interference with lacrimal secretions.

Timecourse

  • Chronic progression usually over months.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Russo M, Lamb C R & Jakovljevic S (2000) Distinguishing rhinitis and nasal neoplasia by radiography. Vet Rad Ultra 41 (2), 118-124 PubMed.
  • Henry C J et al (1998) Survival in dogs with nasal adenocarcinaoma - 64 cases (1981-1995). J Vet Int Med 12 (6), 436-439 PubMed.
  • Morris J S, Dunn K J, Dobson J M & White R A S (1996) Radiological assessment of severity​ of canine nasal tumors and relationship with survival. JSAP 37 (1), 1-6 PubMed.
  • Theisen S K, Lewis D D & Hosgood G (1996) Intranasal tumors in dogs - diagnosis and treatment. Comp Cont Ed Pract Vet 18 (2), 131-139 PubMed.
  • Morris J S, Dunn K J, Dobson J M & White R A S (1994) Effect of radiotherapy alone and surgery and radiotherapy on survival of dogs with nasal tumors. JSAP 35 (11), 567-573 VetMedResource.
  • Théon A P, Madewell B R, Harb M F & Dungworth D L (1993) Megavoltage irradiation of neoplasms of the nasal and paranasal cavities in 77 dogs. JAVMA 202 (9), 1469-1475 PubMed.
  • Thrall D E et al (1993) Failure pattern following cobalt irradiation in dogs with nasal carcinoma. Veterinary Radiology and Ultrasound 34 (2), 126-133 VetMedResource.
  • Hahn K M et al (1992) Clinical response of nasal adenocarcinoma to cisplatin chemotherapy in 11 dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc​ 200 (3), 355-357 PubMed.
  • Park R D et al (1992) Comparison of computed tomography and radiography for detecting changes induced by malignant nasal neoplasia in dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc​ 201 (11), 1720-1724 PubMed.
  • Thompson J P et al (1992) 192 iridium brachytherapy, using an intracavitary afterload device, for treatment of intranasal neoplasms in dogs. Am J Vet Res 53 (4), 617-622 VetMedResource.
  • McEntee M C et al (1991) A retrospective study of 27 dogs with intranasal neoplasms treated with cobalt radiation. Veterinary Radiology 32 (3), 135-139 VetMedResource.
  • White R et al (1990) Development of brachytherapy technique for nasal tumors in dogs. Am J Vet Res 51 (8), 1250-1256 PubMed.
  • Evans S M et al (1989) Prognostic factors and survival after radiotherapy for intranasal neoplasms in dogs - 70 cases (1974-1985). J Am Vet Med Assoc 194 (10), 1460-1463 PubMed.
  • Sullivan M, Lee R & Skae C A (1987) The radiological features of 60 cases intra-nasal neoplasia in the dog. JSAP 28 (7), 575-586 VetMedResource.


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