Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Myopathies

Contributor(s): Kyle Braund, Laurent Garosi

Introduction

  • Inflammatory myopathies: masticatory myositis, idiopathic polymyositis, extra-ocular myositis, dermatomyositis, paraneoplastic polymyositis, infectious inflammatory myopathies.
  • Non-inflammatory myopathies: myotonic myopathies, degenerative breed-specifc myopathies, metabolic myopathies, muscular dystrophies, endocrine myopathies, nutritional myopathies, necrotizing myopathies.
  • Signs: bilateral symmetrical weakness, exercise intolerance, fatigue and stiff, stilted gait.
  • Pain and reflexes are usually preserved.
  • Muscles may hypertrophy or atrophy.
  • Diagnosis: signs, biochemistry, histopathology, immuno-histochemistry.
  • Prognosis: guarded.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Various, see individual entities.

Pathophysiology

  • Muscle pathology → compromised muscle function → generalized weakness, exercise intolerance and stiff gait.

Timecourse


EitherProgressive over several weeks, eg immobilization myopathy develops during immobilization for fracture treatment, or fibrotic myopathy which develops over 3-8 months.
OrEpisodic, eg hyperkalemic and hypernatremic myopathies, or it can be acute, eg exertional myopathy.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent referencesa from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Platt S R & Garosi L S (2004) Neuromuscular weakness and collapse. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 34 (6), 1281-1305 PubMed.
  • Schatzberg S J & Shelton G D (2004) Newly identified neuromuscular disorders. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 34 (6) 1497-1524 PubMed.
  • Taylor S M (2000) Selected disorders of muscle and the neuromuscular junction. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 30 (1), 59-75 PubMed.
  • Platt S R, Chrisman C L & Shelton G D (1999) Lipid storage myopathy in a cocker spaniel. JSAP 40 (1), 31-4 PubMed.
  • Braund K G (1997) Degenerative causes of myopathies in dogs and cats. Vet Med 92 (7), 608-617 VetMedResource.
  • Braund K G (1997) Endogenous causes of myopathies in dogs and cats. Vet Med 92 (7), 618-628 VetMedResource.
  • Braund K G (1997) Idiopathic and exogenous causes of myopathies in dogs and cats. Vet Med 92 (7), 629-634 VetMedResource.

Other sources of information

  • Platt S R & Shelton G D (2013)Exercise intolerance and collapse.BSAVA Manual of Canine and Feline Neurology. Platt S T & Olby N (eds). 4th edn, BSAVA Publication, pp 342-367.


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