Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Myoglobinuria

Introduction

  • Presence of myoglobin (muscle pigment) in the urine.
  • Cause: myoglobin released from muscle during severe muscle necrosis or trauma.
  • Signs: brownish red urine.
  • Diagnosis: positive occult blood reaction; no erythrocytes in urine sediment.
  • Treatment: treat primary cause of muscle damage, fluid therapy Fluid therapy to support renal function.
  • Prognosis: depends on severity of muscle damage.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Myoglobin released from muscle following:
    • Extensive crushing injuries to muscle.
    • Exertional rhabdomyolysis ("Greyhound cramps"; "Azoturia").
    • Hyperthermia.
    • Rarely seen in acute polymyositis.
    • Rarely seen associated with degenerative myopathies.
    • Snake envenomation Adder bite poisoning.

Predisposing factors

General
  • Muscle damage.

Pathophysiology

  • Myoglobin enters urine following muscle trauma or necrosis.
  • Myoglobin released from damaged or necrotic muscle → binds to plasma proteins → excreted in urine before reaching levels that would discolor plasma.
  • Myoglobin is extremely toxic to renal tubules, and myoglobinuria may result in acute renal failure Kidney: acute kidney injury (AKI).

Timecourse

  • Often acute.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Jacobson L S & Lobetti R G (1996) Rhabdomyolysis as a complication of canine babesiosis. JSAP 37 (6), 286-291 PubMed.
  • Lewis P F (1994) Myotoxicity and nephrotoxicity of common tiger snake (Notechis scutatus)​ venom in the dog. Aust Vet J 71 (5), 136-139 PubMed.
  • Leary S L & Anderson et al (1983) Recurrent malignant hyperthermia in a greyhound. JAVMA 182 (5), 521-522 PubMed.
  • Davis P G & Paris R (1974) Azoturia in a greyhound - clinical pathology aids to diagnosis. JSAP 15 (1), 43-54 PubMed.


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