ISSN 2398-2969      

Mastitis

icanis

Introduction

  • Cause: usually ascending bacterial (Staphyloccus aureus, Escherichia coli, etc) infection through nipple during nursing (may be hematogenous or lymphogenous) - predisposed or exacerbated by trauma, unsanitary conditions.
  • Signs: one or more mammary glands that are hot, eliciting signs of pain at touch or when trying to nurse, with purulent or blood-tinged mammary secretions; pyrexia, anorexia; puppies may be unable to feed - restless, cry, appear bloated or fail to thrive. At early stages of infection, it may be subclinical with only galactostasis of affected glands.
  • Diagnosis: clinical signs; milk cytology showing degenerate neutrophils and bacteria; complete blood count may reveal neutrophilic leukocytosis with left shift.
  • Treatment: systemic antibiotics, application of cold compresses to affected mammary glands; may need to wean pups or feed artificially until infection controlled.
  • Prognosis: good with prompt treatment.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

Predisposing factors

General

  • Dam and puppies under unsanitary conditions in nursing box. 
  • Ascending bacterial infection predisposed by: 
    • Constant nursing in dams with large litters.  
    • Secondary galactostasis in dams nursing small litters. 

Pathophysiology

  • Ascending bacterial infection through nipple during nursing.
  • May be hematogenous or lymphogenous spread, eg metritis Acute metritis.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Vasiu I, Dabrowski R, Tvarijonaviciute A (2021) Lactation-related mammary gland pathologies-A neglected emergency in the bitch. Reprod Domest Anim 56 (2), 208-230 PubMed.
  • Gonzales K (2018) Periparturient diseases in the dam. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 48 (4), 663-681 PubMed.
  • Hasegawa T et al (1993) Platelet abnormalities in dog suffering from gangrenous mastitis by Staphylococcus aureus infection. J Vet Med Sci 55 (1), 169-171 PubMed.
  • Dernell W S, Kreeger J (1992) Peracute, necrotizing mastitis as a cause of fatal septicemia and endotoxemia in a dog. Canine Pract 17 (6), 25-29 VetMedResource.
  • Johnson C A (1986) Non-neoplastic disorders of the mammary gland. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 16 (3), 539-542 PubMed.
  • Smith F O (1986) Post partum diseases. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 16 (3), 521-524 PubMed.

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