Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Macropalpebral fissure

Synonym(s): Euryblepharon, Lagophthalmos

Contributor(s): David L Williams

Introduction

  • Cause: congenital and often associated with entropion Entropion and/or ectropion Ectropion in breeds like the St Bernard St Bernard , Bloodhound Bloodhound and Cocker Spaniel English Cocker Spaniel.
  • Signs: an excessively large eyelid opening (palpebral fissure).
  • Can → exposure keratitis Keratitis in brachycephalics.
  • Diagnosis: clinical signs, breed.
  • Treatment: surgery - permanent partial tarsorrhaphy or lid shortening techniques.
  • Prognosis: good.

Pathogenesis

Etiology


Congenital
  • Overlarge palpebral fissure along with underdeveloped lateral canthal ligament → eyelid laxity.
Brachycephalics
  • Exaggerated proptosis.
  • Gross disparity between the size of the globe and the length of the lid.

Predisposing factors

General
  • Brachycephalic conformation.

Pathophysiology


Congenital
  • Large palpebral fissure +/- underdeveloped lateral canthal ligament → laxity of the eyelids → combined entropion/ectropion Combined entropion / ectropion.
Brachycephalics
  • Large palpebral fissure plus prominent globe due to shallow orbit or gross disparity between the size of the globe and the length of the lid → lagophthalmos → exposure keratitis Keratitis.
  • Exposure of eye and abnormal tear production → corneal dryness → reduced sensation of cornea and increased risk of damage.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Bedford P G (1998) Technique of lateral canthoplasty for the correction of macropalpebral fissure in the dog. JSAP 39 (3), 117-120 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Petersen-Jones S M & Crispin S M (eds)Manual of Small Animal Ophthalmology.Cheltenham: British Small Animal Veterinary Association, 1993.


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