Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Lymphoproliferative disease

Contributor(s): Ruthanne Chun

Introduction

  • Includes:
  • Cause: unknown.
  • Signs: referrable to cytopenia due to neoplastic cell infiltration of bone marrow, eg anemia, thrombocytopenia, granulocytopenia. May also be secondary to hyperglobulinemia, eg hemorrhagic diathesis.
  • Diagnosis: hematology, biochemical profile (if myeloma), biopsy of any discrete mass, bone marrow aspirate, radiography.
  • Treatment: cytotoxic drugs.
  • Prognosis: poor if ALL; reasonable if CLL, myeloma or LSA.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Unknown.

Pathophysiology


Lymphoma
  • Malignant proliferation of lymphoid cells Lymphoma arising in any area containing lymphoid tissue → focal or diffuse masses lymph nodes, liver, spleen, bone marrow, intestines, thymus, or skin → may progress to involve kidneys, CNS, lungs, myocardium.
  • Paraneoplastic effects, eg hypercalcemia Hypercalcemia: overview.
Leukemia
  • Marrow infiltration → cytopenia, characterized initially by neutropenia Hematology: neutrophil , thrombocytopenia, progresses to pancytopenia Leukemia.
Myeloma
  • Hypergammaglobulinemia → hyperviscosity → neurological signs, bleeding diathesis, thromboembolism.
  • Marrow infiltration → cytopenia (rarely seen). If present characterized by neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, and progression to pancytopenia.
  • Lytic bone lesions → focal or multifocal → bone pain as lesions progress, risk of pathologic fracture.

Timecourse

  • Acute over weeks, eg ALL; chronic over months, eg CLL, myeloma, lymphoma.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Hendrix D V H, Gelat K N et al (1998) Ophthalmic disease as the presenting complaint in five dogs with multiple myeloma. JAAHA 34 (2), 121-128 PubMed.
  • Hammer A S & Couto C G (1994) Complications of multiple myeloma. JAAHA 30 (1), 9-14 VetMedResource.
  • Matus R E, Leifer C E et al (1986) Prognostic factors for multiple myeloma in the dog. JAAHA 188 (11), 1288-1292 PubMed.


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