Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Lung: pulmonary hemorrhage

Contributor(s): Lesley G King

Introduction

  • Cause: trauma (pulmonary contusion Lung: contusion ); coagulopathies, eg warfarin poisoning, thrombocytopenia.
  • Signs: respiratory distress varying in degree with extent of hemorrhage; cough (hemoptysis if severe); concurrent traumatic injuries including flail chest; severe blood loss may result in shock.
  • Diagnosis: history, clinical signs and physical examination, puse oximetry, radiography, clinicopathologic tests of coagulation and oxygenation.
  • Treatment: supportive and symptomatic, manage underlying cause.
  • Prognosis: generally good with appropriate management, ultimately depends on underlying cause.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

Predisposing factors

General
  • Farm dogs - exposure to rodenticides, lungworm paratenic hosts.
  • Dogs that are allowed to run free (trauma).

Pathophysiology

  • Coagulopathy→ intrapulmonary hemorrhage.
  • Metastatic/invasive neoplasia→ invasive destruction of blood vessels → bleeding into lung → hemoptysis and pleural bleeding.
  • Pulmonary contusion→ crush and shearing injury to lung capillaries → bleeding.
  • Pulmonary infarction→ necrosis of blood vessels.
  • ARDS→ severe pulmonary inflammation and capillary vascular leak syndrome.

Timecourse

  • Usually acute, variable.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Kohn B, Steinicke G, Arndt A D et al (2010) Pulmonary abnormalities in dogs with leptospirosis. JVIM 24 (6), 1277-1282 PubMed.
  • Pink J J (2006) Intramural tracheal hematoma causing acute respiratory obstruction in a dog. JSAP 47 (3), 161-164 PubMed.
  • Bailiff N L, Norris C R, (2002) Clinical signs, clinicopathological findings, etiology and outcome associated with hemoptysis in dogs: 36 cases (1990-1999). JAAHA 38 (2), 125-133 PubMed.
  • Powell L L, Rozanski E A, Tidwell A S et al (1999) A retrospective analysis of pulmonary contusion secondary to motor vehicular accidents in 143 dogs: 1994-1997. J Vet Emer Crit Care (3), 127-136 VetMedResource.
  • Sheafor S E, Couto C G (1999) Anticoagulant rodenticide toxicity in 21 dogs. JAAHA 35 (1), 38-46 PubMed.


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