ISSN 2398-2969      

Leukemia

icanis

Synonym(s): Myeloproliferative, Lymphoproliferative


Introduction

  • The presence of excessive numbers of abnormal, neoplastic cells in bone marrow +/- peripheral blood.
  • Both myeloproliferative and lymphoproliferative diseases, classified as acute versus chronic and by cell lines affected (see below).
  • Signs: non-specific, due to consequences of disease process, eg cytopenia, hypercalcemia.
  • Diagnosis: peripheral blood smears, bone marrow aspirate/biopsy, flow cytometry, PCR for antigen receptor rearrangement (PARR) for lymphoid leukemia.
  • Treatment: supportive, symptomatic, specific cytotoxic agents depending on type of leukemia.
  • Prognosis: favorable chronic, grave for acute leukemias.
Print off the owner factsheet on Canine leukaemia to give to your client.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Unknown.
  • Endogenous retroviral sequences have been demonstrated in the canine genome but the significance of these is unknown.
  • Genetic factors, environmental factors, radiation and chemical exposure should be considered.

Pathophysiology

  • Neoplastic transformation of cells involved in hematopoiesis → massive proliferation of neoplastic cells.
  • Transformation of stem cells or early precursors → proliferation of immature cells incapable of maturation → acute leukemia→ large numbers of immature cells in bone marrow and peripheral blood → severe non-regenerative cytopenia → may result in bleeding (thrombocytopenia), sepsis (neutropenia), profound weakness and lethargy (anemia).
  • Disseminated intravascular coagulation → bleeding diasthesis.
  • Transformation of late precursor cells → proliferation of mature, differentiated cells → chronic leukemia→ less severe cytopenia.
  • Excessive numbers of circulating cells or, rarely, hyperproteinemia → hyperviscosity → decreased oxygen transport to capillary beds → microthrombi of tumor cells.
  • Production of humoral factors, eg PTH-rp or parathyroid related peptide, → stimulation of osteoclasts → hypercalcemia of malignancy → polyuria/polydipsia → renal failure.

Timecourse

  • Acute leukemia progresses rapidly over days/weeks.
  • Chronic leukemia over months/years.

Diagnosis

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Treatment

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Outcomes

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Tasca S,  Carli E,  Caldin M, Menegazzo L, Furlanello T, Solano Gallego L (2009) Hematologic abnormalities and flow cytometric immunophenotyping results in dogs with hematopoietic neoplasia: 210 cases (2002–2006). Vet Clin Pathol 38(1), 2-12 PubMed.
  • Dobson J, Villiers E & Morris J (2006) Diagnosis and management of leukaemia in dogs and cats. In Practice 28 (1), 22-31 VetMedResource.
  • Modiano J, Smith R et al (1998) The use of cytochemistry, immunophenotyping, flow cytometry, and in vitro differentiation to determine the ontogeny of a canine monoblastic leukemia. Vet Clin Pathol 27 (2), 40-49 PubMed.
  • Grindem C B (1996) Blood cell markers. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 26 (5), 1043-1064 PubMed.

Other Sources of Information

  • Vail D M, Pinkerton M, Young K M (2020) Cancer chemotherapy. In: Small Animal Clinical Oncology. 6th edn. Eds Withrow & MacEwen. Elsevier Saunders, St. Louis. pp 712-715. 
  • Vail D M,  Young K M (2020) Cancer chemotherapy. In: Small Animal Clinical Oncology. 6th edn. Eds Withrow & MacEwen. Elsevier Saunders, St. Louis. pp 730-739.

Can’t find what you’re looking for?

We have an ever growing content library on Vetlexicon so if you ever find we haven't covered something that you need please fill in the form below and let us know!

 
 
 
 

To show you are not a Bot please can you enter the number showing adjacent to this field

 Security code