Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Larynx: disease overview

Contributor(s): Kyle Braund, Elizabeth Rozanski, Gert ter Haar

Introduction

Pathogenesis

Etiology

Pathophysiology

  • History and clinical signs of laryngeal disease reflect dysfunction of the larynx in its regulation of air flow or vocalization, its insufficiency in protecting the airway as a result of a decreased quality of the cough or the resulting irritation and stimulation of the cough receptors.
  • In dysfunction of regulation of airflow, it is the inability of abduction that causes the predominant signs of dyspnea/stridor on exertion. Inability to adduct increases the likelihood of aspiration.
  • Irritation of laryngeal mucosa → coughing (loud, dry and persistent) and occasional gagging after eating or drinking.

Timecourse

  • Variable - minutes to days/weeks/months.
  • Many dogs have progression of clinical signs over weeks to months prior to the development of an overt respiratory crisis.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Rutherford L, Beever L, Bruce M M, Haar ter G (2017) Assessment of computed tomography derived cricoid cartilage and tracheal dimensions to evaluate degree of cricoid narrowing in brachycephalic dogs. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 58 (6), 634-646 PubMed.
  • Oechtering G U, Pohl S, Schlueter C, Lippert J P, Alef M, Kiefer I et al (2016) A Novel Approach to Brachycephalic Syndrome. 1. Evaluation of Anatomical Intranasal Airway Obstruction. Vet Surg 45 (2), 165-172 PubMed.
  • Oechtering G U, Pohl S, Schlueter C, Schuenemann R (2016) A Novel Approach to Brachycephalic Syndrome. 2. Laser-Assisted Turbinectomy (LATE). Vet Surg 45 (2), 173-181 PubMed.
  • Haimel G, Dupr√© G (2015) Brachycephalic airway syndrome: a comparative study between pugs and French bulldogs. JSAP 56 (12), 714-719 PubMed.
  • Gabriel A, Poncelet L, Van Ham L, Clercx C, Braund KG, Bhatti S et al (2006) Laryngeal paralysis-polyneuropathy complex in young related Pyrenean mountain dogs. JSAP 47 (3), 144-149 PubMed.
  • Snelling S R, Edwards G A (2003) A retrospective study of unilateral arytenoid lateralisation in the treatment of laryngeal paralysis in 100 dogs (1992-2000). Aust Vet J 81 (8), 464-468 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Haar ter G (2016) Throat Anatomy and Physiology. In: Harvey RG, Haar ter G (eds) Ear, Nose and Throat Diseases of the Dog and Cat. 1st edn. London: CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group; pp 345-56.
  • Haar ter G (2016) Surgery of the Throat. In: Harvey RG, Haar ter G (eds) Ear, Nose and Throat Diseases of the Dog and Cat. 1st edn. London: CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group; pp 475–-90.
  • Venker-van Haagen A J (2000) Diseases of the throat. In: Textbook of Veterinary Internal Medicine. 5th edn. Eds S J Ettinger & E C Feldman. Philadelphia: W B Saunders. pp 1029-1031.


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