ISSN 2398-2969      

Kidney: pyelonephritis

icanis
Contributor(s):

Astrid van Dongen


Introduction

  • Inflammation of renal parenchyma and pelvis.
  • Cause: usually bacterial infection ascending from lower urinary tract (but can have other infectious etiologies, eg fungal).
  • Signs: often preceded or accompanied by dysuria/stranguria with signs of systemic illness: pyrexia, acute abdominal pain, lethargy and inappetence, vomiting; occasionally insidious onset.
  • Diagnosis: ultrasound, urinalysis, aspiration biopsy pelvis (including bacterial culture), histopathology.
  • Treatment: prolonged antimicrobials, preferably based on sensitivity.
  • Prognosis: good if early treatment, otherwise permanent and often progressive renal damage or even septicemia.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Ascending bacterial infection.
  • Hematogenous spread of infection or embolus.

Predisposing factors

General
  • Incontinence, eg due to abnormal anatomy: ectopic ureter, or function; sphincter incompetence.
  • Lower urinary tract infection Cystitis.
  • Vesico-ureteral reflux.
  • Bacterial endocarditis Endocarditis: bacterial.
  • Renal scarring.
  • Systemic immunosuppression, eg chemotherapy, glucocorticoids or hyperadrenocorticism.

Pathophysiology

Timecourse

  • Days (but may be weeks).

Diagnosis

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Treatment

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Prevention

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Outcomes

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Weese J S , Blondeau J M, Boothe D, Breitschwerdt E B, Guardabassi L, Hillier A, Lloyd D H, Papich M G, Rankin S C, Turnidge J D, Sykes J E (2011) Antimicrobial use guidelines for treatment of urinary tract disease in dogs and cats: antimicrobial guidelines working group of the international society for companion animal infectious diseases. Vet Med Int 2011, 263768 PubMed.
  • Kolbjørnsen O, Heggelund M, Jansen J H (2008) End-stage kidney disease probablt due to reflux nephropathy with segmental hypoplasia (Ask-Upmark kidney) in young Boxer dogs in Norway. A retrospective study. Vet Pathol 45 (4), 467-474 PubMed.
  • Szatmári V, Osi Z & Manczur F (2001) Ultrasound-guided percutaneous drainage for treatment of pyonephrosis in two dogsJAVMA 218 (11), 1796-1799 PubMed.
  • Gookin J L, Stone E A, Spaulding K A, Berry C R (1996) Unilateral nephrectomy in dogs with renal disease: 30 cases (1985-1994). JAVMA 208 (12), 2020-2026 PubMed.
  • Ginder D R (1974) Urinary tract infection and pyelonephritis due to Escherichia coli in dogs infected with canine adenovirus. J Infect Dis 129 (6), 715-719 PubMed.

Can’t find what you’re looking for?

We have an ever growing content library on Vetlexicon so if you ever find we haven't covered something that you need please fill in the form below and let us know!

 
 
 
 

To show you are not a Bot please can you enter the number showing adjacent to this field

 Security code