Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Juvenile renal disease

Contributor(s): Phil Nicholls

Introduction

  • Cause: juvenile renal disease is usually caused by a congenital (developmental) or hereditary renal abnormality.
  • The diseases include renal dysplasia, renal agenesis, renal cortical hypoplasia or glomerulopathies.
  • Signs: the animals present with signs of chronic renal failure; stunted growth; dysphagia.
  • Diagnosis: radiography.
  • Prognosis: guarded.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Not well-defined.
  • Insults during the fetal and neonatal period, eg:
  • Hereditary:
    • A familial basis has not been established in all cases.
    • An autosomal recessive mode of inheritance is probable in Lhasa Apso Lhasa Apso and Shih Tzu Shih Tzu breeds.
    • Familial disease has been reported in Soft-coated Wheaten Terrier Soft Coated Wheaten Terrier , Standard Poodle Poodle: Standard , Chow Chow Chow Chow , Alaskan Malamute Alaskan Malamute , Golden Retriever Retriever: Golden and Dutch Kooiker.
    • But the disease has been reported in many other breeds also, for which a familial basis has not been shown.
  • Same as chronic renal failure (less common in young dog)

Predisposing factors

General
  • Breed.

Pathophysiology

  • Renal disease in immature or young adult dogs which is not associated with primary renal inflammation:
    • Agenesis.
    • Hypoplasia.
    • Dysplasia.
    • Primary cystic diseases.
    • Glomerulopathies.
    • Tubulointerstitial nephropathies.
    • Tubular transport dysfunction.
  • Renal dysplasia is characterized by disorganized development of renal parenchyma due to anomalous differentiation.
  • Induction of the metanephric blastema is initiated but fails to undergo complete differentiation → persistence of poorly differentiated tissue, ie fetal glomeruli and/or tubules, persistent mesenchyme, or anomalous structures, ie atypical tubular epithelium.
  • Persistent metanephric ducts and dysontogenic metaplasia - rare in dogs.
  • Due to agenesis, developmental abnormalities and non-functioning renal tissue signs of chronic renal failure usually develop before the animal is one year old.
  • Increased renal calcium loss → hyperparathyroidism → osteoporosis → increased risk of fibrous osteodystrophy (rubber jaw) and fractures.

Timecourse

  • Once clinical signs develop, the disease progresses rapidly.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Peeters D et al (2000) Juvenile nephropathy in a Boxer, a Rottweiler, a Collie and an Irish Wolfhound. Aust Vet J 78 (3), 162-165 PubMed.


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