Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Intussusception

Contributor(s): Ken Harkin, James Simpson

Introduction

  • Invagination of a portion of gastrointestinal tract into a posterior or preceding segment of intestine.
  • Cause: thought to be due to vigorous contraction of a segment of intestine into the lumen of the adjacent relaxed segment, disruption of migrating motor complex, disturbed conduction patterns.
  • Signs: abdominal discomfort, abdominal mass, vomiting, diarrhea, anorexia, lethargy, dehydration.
  • Diagnosis: age, signs and radiography, ultrasound.
  • Treatment: surgery.
  • Prognosis: favorable if rapidly diagnosed and treated.

Pathogenesis

Predisposing factors

General
  • Intestinal parasitism.
  • Previous abdominal surgery for unrelated disease.
  • Enteritis.

Pathophysiology

  • A portion of the gastrointestinal tract invaginates into a posterior or preceding segment of intestine.
  • Results in partial or complete intestinal obstruction Intestine: obstruction.
  • Vigorous contraction of a segment of intestine into the lumen of the adjacent relaxed segment.
  • The blood supply to the intussuscepted piece of gut is compromised due to its inclusion in the invagination.
  • Initially, venous occlusion is present, resulting in edema of the bowel; if prolonged, can eventually cause arterial occlusion and necrosis.
  • Eventually, fibrinous adhesions can form, making spontaneous or surgical reduction of the intussusception less likely.
  • Results in partial or complete intestinal obstruction Intestine: obstruction.

Timecourse

  • Usually days.
  • Chronic cases may show intermittent signs over weeks.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Applewhite A A, Cornell K K & Selcer B A (2001) Pylorogastric intussusception in the dog - a case study and literature review. JAAHA 37 (3), 238-243 PubMed.
  • Borgarelli M, Biller D S, Gogin J M & Bussadori C (1998) Ultrasonographic examination of the gastrointestinal tract Part 2. Ultrasonographical identification of gastrointestinal disease. EJCAP 8, 57-65.
  • Lamb C R & Mantis P (1998) Ultrasonographic features of intestinal intussusception in 10 dogs. JSAP 39 (9), 437-41 PubMed.
  • Oakes M G, Lewis D D, Hosgood G & Beale B S (1994) Enteroplication for the prevention of intussusception recurrence in dogs - 31 cases (1978-1992). JAVMA 205 (1), 72-75 PubMed.
  • Penninck D G, Nyland T G, Kerr L Y & Fisher P E (1990) Ultrasonographic evaluation of gastrointestinal disease in small animals. Vet Rad 31 (3), 134-141 VetMedResource.
  • Lewis D D, Ellison G W & Oakes M G (1987) Intussusception in dogs and cats. Comp Cont Ed 9 (5), 523-532 VetMedResource.


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