Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Pelger-Huet anomaly

Contributor(s): Ansar Ahmed, Michael Day, Richard Squires, Severine Tasker

Introduction

  • RARE anomaly of granulocytes.
  • Benign condition characterized by hyposegmentation of granulocyte nuclei but granulocyte function is normal.
  • Nuclei remain round, oval or bean shaped but with normal coarse clumped chromatin.
  • Granulocytes of normal size with mature cytoplasm.
  • Signs: incidental finding of apparent continual left shift despite animal appearing clinically normal, with normal white blood cell count.
  • Diagnosis: hematology.
  • Treatment: none required.
  • Prognosis: excellent.

Pathogenesis

Pathophysiology

  • Most likely inherited as autosomal dominant trait (although incomplete inpenetrance suspected in Australian Shepherd Dogs); homozygous trait can be lethal in utero but heterozygote trait is more common with no clinical signs.
  • In heterozygotes neutrophil mobility (chemotaxis), phagocytosis or intracellular bacterial killing are all normal.
  • Appear to generate antibodies to exogenous antigens and have normal lymphocyte proliferative responses, implying that T and B cells may co-ordinate normal activities.
  • In Foxhounds however, antibody responses may be impaired.

Diagnosis

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Lukaszewka J, Allison R W & Stepkowska J (2011) Congenital Pelger-Huet anomaly in a Danish/Swedish Farmdog: Case Report. Acta Vet Scand 53, 14-18 PubMed.
  • Vale A M, Tomaz K L R, Sousa R S & Soto-Blanco B (2011) Pelger-Huet anomaly in two related mixed-breed dogs. J Vet Diag Invest 23 (4), 863-865 PubMed.
  • Latimer K S, Campagnoli R P, Danilenko S M (2000) Pelger-Huet anomaly in Australian Shepherd Dogs: 87 cases (1991-1997). Comp Hematol Int 10 (1), 9-13 Research Gate.
  • Aroch I et al (1996) Hematological, ocular and skeletal abnormalities in a Samoyed family. JSAP 37 (7), 333-339 PubMed.
  • Latimer K S, Kricher I M, Lindl P A, Dawe D L & Brown J (1989) Leukocyte function in Pelger-Huet anomaly of dogs. J Leukocyte Biol 45 (4), 301-310 PubMed.
  • Guilford W G (1987) Primary immunodeficiency diseases of dogs and cats. Comp Cont Educ 9 (6), 641-650 VetMedResource.
  • Latimer K S, Duncan J R & Kircher I M (1987) Nuclear segmentation, ultrastructure, and cytochemistry of blood cells from dogs with Pelger-Huet anomaly. J Comp Pathol 97 (1), 61-72 PubMed.
  • Bowles C A et al (1979) Studies of the Pelger-Huet anomaly in foxhounds. Am J Pathol 96 (1), 237-247 PubMed.
  • Shull R M et al (1979) Acquired hyposegmentation of granulocytes (pseudo-Pelger-Huet anomaly) in a dog. Cornell Vet 69 (3), 241-247 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Thompson J P (1995) Immunologic diseases .In:Textbook of Veterinary Internal Medicine.Eds: Ettinger S J & Feldman E C. 4th edn. Philadelphia: W B Saunders. pp 2002-2029.


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