Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Hypoproteinemia

Synonym(s): Hypoalbuminemia

Contributor(s): Lisa Moore, Elisa Mazzaferro

Introduction

  • A presenting sign of lower than normal serum protein levels (<2.6 g serum albumin/dl).
  • Cause: secondary to another primary disease process causing protein loss or decreased protein synthesis/availability:
    • Protein-losing enteropathy Protein-losing enteropathy.
    • Protein-losing nephropathy.
    • Impaired protein synthesis/absorption.
    • Protein deficiency/loss.
  • Signs: signs of primary disease process until chronic when generalized peripheral edema, pleural/abdominal effusion, weight loss.
  • Diagnosis: laboratory tests.
  • Treatment: treat primary disease process.
  • Prognosis: depends on primary disease process.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Depends on primary disease process.

Protein losing enteropathies

Protein losing nephropathies

Impaired protein synthesis/malabsorption

Protein deficiency

  • External hemorrhage Trauma: overview.
  • Prolonged malnutrition.
  • Prolonged feeding of protein-restricted diet.

Pathophysiology

  • Primary disease process causes increased loss, reduced uptake or decreased availability of protein → reduced serum protein levels.
  • Decreased plasma protein → hypoalbuminemia → decreased plasma osmotic pressure → fluid transudation from capillaries → generalized peripheral edema and pleural/abdominal effusions → pleural effusion/ascites → clinical signs.

Timecourse

  • Chronic condition before signs seen.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Moore L E (1998) Fluid therapy in the hypoproteinemic patient. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 28 (3), 709-715 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Ettinger S J, Feldman E C, Cote E (eds) (2017) Textbook of Veterinary Internal Medicine. 8th edn. St Louis: Elsevier.
  • Stockham S L, Scott M A (2002) Fundamentals of Veterinary Clinical Pathology. Iowa: Iowa State Press.


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