ISSN 2398-2969      

Hydronephrosis / hydroureter

icanis

Introduction

  • Cause: obstruction at level of renal pelvis (hydronephrosis) or ureter (hydroureter with possible hydronephrosis) → rapid deterioration of function of the affected kidney.
  • Signs: acute or chronic renal failure.
  • Diagnosis: imaging.
  • Treatment: surgery, antibiotics.
  • Prognosis: if treated early enough, renal function may still be intact → ureteral function may return to normal.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

Pathophysiology

  • Obstruction at level of the renal pelvis or ureter → obstruction of normal urine flow → back pressure on kidney and ureter → dilation of renal pelvis and ureter proximal of obstruction → initially decrease in functional glomerular filtration rate → followed by structural damage to the affected kidney.
  • Stasis of urine → predisposes to urinary tract infection and urolithiasis (especially struvite).
  • Urinary tract infection → disruption of normal ureteric peristalsis.
  • Increased renin production by acutely obstructed kidney → hypertension (not in chronic cases).

Timecourse

  • Complete failure of the kidney once complete obstruction has been present for 4 weeks.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Ruiz de Gopegui R, Espada Y & Majo N (1999) Bilateral hydroureter and hydronephrosis in a 9 year old female German shepherd dog. JSAP 40 (5), 224-226 WileyOnlineLibrary.
  • Thickman D et al (1984) Magnetic resonance evaluation of hydronephrosis in the dog. Radiology 152 (1), 113-116 PubMed.

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