Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Hordeolum

Synonym(s): Sty

Contributor(s): Rhea Morgan

Introduction

  • Focal infection of one or more glands of the eyelids.
  • Cause: usuallyStaphylococcus aureus Staphylococcus aureus.
  • Signs: painful, inflamed enlargement of one or more eyelid glands.
  • Diagnosis: ophthalmic examination, bacterial culture.
  • Treatment: warm compresses, topical antibiotics, possibly systemic antibiotics.
  • Prognosis: good.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Most often:Staphylococcus aureus.
  • May also involve other normal bacterial flora.

Predisposing factors

General
  • None defined.

Pathophysiology

  • External hordeolum is mild infection of either the glands of Zeis or Moll in the eyelids. The common term sty is most often applied to an external hordeolum.
  • Internal hordeolum is infection of a Meibomian (sebaceous) gland of the eyelid.
  • The exact pathogenesis of the infection is poorly understood.
  • Overgrowth of resident bacteria may occur following trauma, nonspecific inflammation, changes in local immunity, etc within the eyelids.
  • Infection is usually mild and suppurative.

Timecourse

  • Onset is acute (48-72 hours).
  • Duration is less than 2 weeks with appropriate therapy.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Johnson B W, Campbell K L (1989) Dermatoses of the canine eyelid. Compend Contin Educ Pract Vet 11 (4), 385-394 VetMedResource.
  • Barrie K P, Parshall C J (1979) Eyelid pyogranulomas in four dogs. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 14 (4), 433-438 VetMedResource.

Other sources of information

  • Slatter D (2001)Eyelids.In: Slatter D:Fundamentals of Veterinary Ophthalmology. 3rd Ed. W B Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 147-203.
  • Gelatt K N (1991)The canine eyelids.In: Gelatt K N (ed):Veterinary Ophthalmology.2nd Ed. Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia, pp 256-275.
  • Magrane W G (1971)diseases and surgery of the lids and lacrimal apparatus.In: Magrane W G:Canine Ophthalmology.2nd Ed. Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia, pp 52-79.


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