Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Giardiasis

Contributor(s): Dwight Bowman, David Lindsay, P Martin, Prof AndrewThompson

Introduction

  • CauseGiardia Giardia duodenalis , protozoal disease of small intestine.
  • Signs: diarrhea or subclinical (common).
  • Diagnosis: fecal examination by various tests.
  • Treatment: metronidazole or fenbendazole.
  • Prognosis: good for recovery. Persistent infection and reinfection is a problem.
  • Interpretation: given relatively high prevalence ofGiardiacysts in normal dog feces, the significance of positive results in dogs with diarrhea needs to be questioned. A course of treatment is almost always warranted (due to possibility of zoonotic infection) but subclinical infection may persist.
    Print off the owner factsheet on Giardiasis Giardiasis to give to your client.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

Predisposing factors

General
  • Age.
  • Crowded kennel conditions.
  • Concurrent disease.

Pathophysiology

  • Giardiatrophozoites Giardia 02 → attach to small intestinal mucosal epithelium Giardia 01 → mechanical, toxic or immunological mucosal damage → malabsorption and diarrhea.

Timecourse

  • Prepatent period = 6-8 days.

Epidemiology

  • Trophozoites mature into infective cysts Giardia: cysts during intestinal transit → fecal shedding of cysts → ingestion of contaminated food or water.
  • Wild animals potential reservoir.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Fiechter R, Deplazes P, Schnyder M (2012) Control of Giardia infections with ronidazole and intensive hygiene management in a dog kennel. Vet Parasitol 187, 93-98 PubMed.
  • Bowman D D & Lucio-Forster A (2010) Cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis in dogs and cats: veterinary and public health importance. Exp Parasitol 124, 121-127 PubMed.
  • Rishniw M, Liotta J, Bellosa M et al (2010) Comparison of 4 Giardia diagnostic tests in diagnosis of naturally acquired canine chronic subclinical giardiasis. J Vet Inter Med 24, 293-297 PubMed.
  • Barr S C, Bowman D D, Frongillo M F et al (1998) Efficacy of a drug combination of praziquantel, pyrantel pamoate, and febantel against giardiasis in dogs. Am J Vet Res 59, 1134-1136 PubMed.
  • Barr S C, Bowman, D D, Heller R L (1994) Efficacy of fenbendazole against giardiasis in dogs. Am J Vet Res 55, 988-990 PubMed.
  • Barr S C, Bowman D D, Heller R L et al (1993) Efficacy of albendazole against giardiasis in dogs. Am J Vet Res 54, 926-928 PubMed.


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