Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Failure to accept male at breeding

Contributor(s): Autumn P Davidson

Introduction

  • Cause: psychological (dominance, poor socialization), physiological (immature, wrong stage of estrus), pathological (pelvic canal abnormalities → pain, physical barrier).
  • Signs: fear/aggression in presence of male, refusal to submit to mounting.
  • Diagnosis: fear/pain.
  • Treatment: depends on cause - artificial insemination, sedation, surgical correction, improved timing/management.
  • Prognosis: good to poor.

Pathogenesis

Etiology



Psychological
  • Bitches raised in the absence of other dogs and only in the company of humans may not recognize other dogs as 'self'.
  • Bitches who live with males may not permit mounting due to dominance issues.
  • Sire preference?
  • Younger bitches tend to accept male later in cycle, ie degree of vaginal cornification, than do older bitches.
Physiological
  • Presented to the male too soon before or or too late after the LH surge.
Anomalies of the vestibule or vagina
  • Various forms of vestibular and vaginal anomalies Vestibulovaginal stenosis - circumferential constrictions cranial to the urethral opening - may be embryonic remnants:
    • Circumferential constrictions cranial to urethral opening - probably remnants of the appostion between embryonic endoderm and ectoderm.
    • Extending cranially maybe due to local hypotrophy of the vagina.
    • Bands extending between the roof and floor of the vagina may be remnants of the medial walls of the two embryonic tubes (the Mullerian system) that fuse to form the body fo the uterus and the vagina.

Predisposing factors

General
  • Vaginal anomalies.
  • Poor socialization.
  • Improper timing.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Kyles A E, Vaden S, Hardie E M & Stone E A (1996) Vestibulovaginal stenosis in dogs - 18 cases (1987-1995). JAVMA 209 (11), 1889-1893 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Feldman E C & Nelson R W (1996)Vaginal defects, vaginitis, and vaginal infections.In:Canine and Feline Endocrinology and Reproduction. London: W B Saunders. (An excellent, current and well-illustrated review of these problems.)
  • Soderberg S F (1986)Vaginal disorders.In:Reproduction and Periparturient Care.Vet Clin North Am16, 3. (The technique of vaginal contrast radiography. Also shows corrective surgery.)


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