Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Discolored urine

Contributor(s): Melissa Wallace

Introduction

  • Normal urine is yellow to amber in color.
  • Depth and nature of color is related to urine volume and presence of pigments.
  • Cause: most common are hematuria, hemoglobinuria and bilirubinuria.
  • Signs: discoloration of urine.
  • Diagnosis: visual inspection, dipstick, urine sediment examination, blood biochemistry and hematology.
  • Treatment: depends on etiology.
  • Prognosis: depends on etiology.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Related to color of urine.
Deep yellow
  • Quinacrine.
Yellow-orange
  • Bilirubin.
  • Fluorescein.
  • Concentrated urine.
  • Sulfasalazine.
Yellow-green or yellow-brown
  • Bilirubin.
  • Biliverdin.
Brown-black
  • Methemoglobin.
  • Methocarbamol.
  • Phenols.
Brown or rust-yellow
  • Nitrofurantoin.
  • Furazolidone.
  • Metronidazole.
  • Sulfonamides.
Red-brown
  • Methemoglobin.
  • Myoglobin Myoglobinuria.
  • Erythrocytes.
  • Hemoglobin.
  • Dilantin.
  • Dinitrophenol.
  • Chronic lead or mercury poisoning.
Red-purple
  • Porphyrins.
  • Phenolphthalein.
Red-orange
  • Rifampin.
  • Phenazopyridine.
Red
  • Myoglobin Myoglobinuria.
  • Erythrocytes.
  • Hemoglobin
  • Dyes.
  • Porphyrins.
  • Phenazopyridine.
  • Phenolsulfonphthalein.
  • Beets.
Blue
  • Methylene blue.
Blue-green
  • Urinary tract infection due toPseudomonas aeruginosa Pseudomonas.
  • Indicanuria due to intestinal bacterial overgrowth.
Dark green
  • Phenols.
Milky
  • Pyuria.
  • Lipiduria.

Pathophysiology

Timecourse

  • Days to months before presentation, depending on cause.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Barlough J E, Osbourne C A & Stevens J B (1981) Canine and feline urinalysis - value of macroscopic and microscopic examinations. JAVMA 178 (1), 61-63 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Lusk R H (1995)Discolored urine.In:Textbook of Veterinary Internal Medicine. Ettinger S J & Feldman E C (eds). Chapter 38. pp 173-174.


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