Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Diabetes mellitus

Synonym(s): Sugar diabetes, DM

Contributor(s): David Bruyette, Audrey K Cook

Introduction

  • Generally >6 years old. Rare in young.
  • Cause: syndrome characterized by relative or absolute lack of insulin.
  • Signs: polyuria/polydipsia, weight loss, polyphagia.
  • Diagnosis: glycosuria, hyperglycemia.
  • Treatment: insulin therapy Insulin.
    Print-off the owner factsheet on Diabetes mellitus Diabetes mellitus to give to your client.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Inadequate secretion of insulin (immune-mediated destruction of islet cells, pancreatitis Pancreatitis: acute , islet cell exhaustion).

Pathophysiology

  • Type 1: (insulin dependent) destruction of beta cells → complete and permanent loss of insulin secretory ability.
  • Other types of diabetes mellitus are rare in the dog:
    • Severe insulin resistance in islet shut-down and overt DM.
    • May be reversible if cause of insulin resistance is addressed, eg diestrus diabetes/canine acromegaly Acromegaly , due to secretion of growth hormone by mammary tissue.

Timecourse

  • Destruction of islets may take several months.
  • Clinical course is short once insulin production ceases.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Herring I P, Panciera D L, Were S R (2014) Longitudinal prevalence of hypertension, proteinuria, and retinopathy in dogs with spontaneous diabetes mellitus. JVIM 28 (2), 488-495 PubMed.
  • Niessen S J, Powney S, Guitian J et al (2012) Evaluation of a quality-of-life tool for dogs with diabetes mellitus. JVIM 26 (4), 953-961 PubMed.
  • Rucinsky R, Cook A, Haley S, Nelson R, Zoran D L & Poundstone M (2010) AAHA diabetes management guidelines. JAAHA 46 (3), 215-224 PubMed.
  • Monroe W E, Laxton D et al (2008) Efficacy and safety of a purified porcine zinc suspension for managing diabetes mellitus in dogs. JVIM 19 (5), 675-682 PubMed.
  • Davison L J, Herrtage M E & Catchpole B (2005) Study of 253 dogs in the United Kingdom with diabetes mellitus. Vet Rec 156 (15), 467-471 PubMed.
  • Davison L J, Catchpole B, Kennedy L J, Barnes A, Thomson W & Ollier W E (2003) Research into canine diabetes mellitus. Vet Rec 152 (5), 148 PubMed.
  • Fleeman L M & Rand J S (2003) Evaluation of day-to-day variability of serial blood glucose concentration curves in diabetic dogs. JAVMA 222 (3), 317-21 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Mattin M J, O'Neill D G, Church D B & Brodbelt D C (2013)Canine diabetes mellitus: prevelence, risk factors and survival.In:Scientific Proceedings, British Small Animal Veterinary Association Congress, Birmingham, April 4-7, 2013, p 568.


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