Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Determination of neutering status in the bitch and dog

Contributor(s): Autumn P Davidson


  • To evaluate the need for neutering when the sterilization status of animal is unknown.
  • Also useful in the evaluation of ovarian remnant syndrome Ovarian remnant syndrome and cryptorchidism Testicle: cryptorchidism.
  • To reduce undesired and unintentional breeding Mesalliance.
  • Physical findings are only reliable when two scrotal testes are found or when obvious signs of estrus are present.
  • The amount of vaginal bleeding during proestrus and estrus in a bitch partially ovariohysterectomized is dependent on the amount of uterine tissue left behind, and can be misleadingly scant.
  • Behavioral signs can suggest the presence of a gonad in the dog (aggression, urine marking, interest in estrual bitches) and prompt further evaluation.
  • Cryptorchidism is inherited and common in many breeds. Monorchism is extremely rare.


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Further Reading


Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Davidson A P & Baker T W (2009) Reproductive ultrasound of the bitch and queen. Top Companion Anim Med 24 (2), 55-63 PubMed.
  • Davidson A P & Baker T W (2009) Reproductive ultrasound of the dog and tom. Top Companion Anim Med 24 (2), 64-70 PubMed.