Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Dental malocclusion

Synonym(s): Distoversion, mesioversion, linguoversion, labioversion, buccoversion, crossbite, mandibular distocclusion, mandibular mesiocclusion, maxillary-mandibular asymmetry

Contributor(s): MarkThompson, Alexander M Reiter

Introduction

  • An ideal occlusion - according to the American Veterinary Dental College (AVDC) - can be described as perfect interdigitation of the maxillary and mandibular teeth. In the dog, the ideal tooth positions in the arches are defined by the occlusal, interarch and interdental relationships of the teeth of the archetypal dog (ie wolf). This ideal relationship with the mouth closed can be defined by the following:
    • The maxillary incisor teeth are all positioned rostral to the corresponding mandibular incisor teeth.
    • The crown cusps of the mandibular incisor teeth contact the cingulum of the maxillary incisor teeth.
    • The mandibular canine tooth is inclined labially and bisects the interproximal (interdental) space between the opposing maxillary third incisor tooth and canine tooth.
    • The maxillary premolar teeth do not contact the mandibular premolar teeth.
    • The crown cusps of the mandibular premolar teeth bisect the interproximal (interdental) spaces rostral to the corresponding maxillary premolar teeth.
    • The mesial crown cusp of the maxillary fourth premolar tooth is positioned lateral to the space between the mandibular fourth premolar tooth and the mandibular first molar tooth.
  • A malocclusion is any deviation from ideal occlusion described above. In dental malocclusion, one or more teeth are in abnormal position within the dental arch. In skeletal malocclusion, there is an abnormal relationship between the maxillary and mandibular dental arches; dental malocclusion may be present in addition to skeletal malocclusion.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Genetic and environmental factors.

Predisposing factors

General
  • Delayed shedding of deciduous teeth (persistent deciduous teeth Teeth: retained deciduous ).
  • Trauma during dental and skeletal development.
  • Hyperdontia.
  • Breeding for exaggerated head types (brachycephalism and dolichocephalism).
  • Jaw fracture repair resulting in malocclusion.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

Other sources of information

  • Harvey CE, Emily PP. Small Animal Dentistry. Mosby, St. Louis 1993; pp 266-296.
  • Classification of Dental Occlusion in Dogs by the American Veterinary Dental College (http://avdc.org/)


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