Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Dental fracture

Contributor(s): Alex Smithson

Introduction

  • Fracture of tooth may expose pulp which will become inflamed and infected leading to pain and likely eventual periapical abscessation.
  • Cause: traumatic.
  • Signs: painful (variable expression).
  • Treatment: endodontics 'root canal therapy' (to save tooth), extraction.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Trauma, eg catching stones, fights, RTA.
  • Trauma when eating/chewing, eg bones, hard toys.

Predisposing factors

General
  • Young animals (immature dentition).
  • Playing habits.
  • Diet.

Specific

  • RTA.
  • Cage biting.
  • Chewing hard objects (including bones).
  • Fights.
  • Catching stones.
  • High-rise injury.
  • Carrying over-sized sticks.

Pathophysiology

  • Exposure of pulp due to fracture Teeth fracture 01 Teeth tooth fracture → inflammation and infection of pulp ('pulpitis') → necrosis of pulp → periapical pathology (abscessation Teeth: periapical abscess /granulation tissue/cyst). Tooth discoloration, from pulp necrosis, may occur Teeth pulpal necrosis 02.
  • Pulp may still become inflamed (with potential pathology as above) even if not fully exposed as thin dentine is poorly protective.

Timecourse

  • Immediate onset re discomfort and pulp compromise.
  • Weeks to years re periapical pathology.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Muir P & Gengler W R (1999) Interdental acrylic stabilization of canine tooth root and mandibular fractures in dogs. Vet Rec 145, 43-45 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Gorrel C (2004)Veterinary Dentistry for the General Practitioner. W B Saunders.
  • BSAVA Manual of Small Animal Dentistry, Crossley & Penman.


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