Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Dacryocystitis

Contributor(s): Paul Gerding, Rhea Morgan

Introduction

  • Inflammation of the lacrimal sac or nasolacrimal duct.
  • Cause: usually foreign body or bacterial infection.
  • Signs: unilateral copious mucopurulent discharge.
  • Diagnosis: clinical signs, cannulation and flushing of nasolacrimal duct, dacryocystorhinography.
  • Treatment: nasolacrimal flush, antibiotic therapy and/or cannulation of nasolacrimal duct.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Foreign bodies within the nasolacrimal system, eg grass awn.
  • Bacterial conjunctivitis with extension into the nasolacrimal sac or duct. Most common isolates areStaphylococcus Staphylococcus spp ,Streptococcus Streptococcus spp ,E. coli Escherichia coli ,Enterobacter Enterobacter aerogenes (aerobacter aerogenes) ,Pseudomonas Pseudomonas , andProteusspp Proteus spp.
  • Dental disease with extension of infection from the tooth root into the nasolacrimal duct.
  • Infection secondary to other obstructions of the duct, eg trauma, tumor, stenosis, cysts, etc.
  • Rarely, fungal infections of the nasolacrimal duct.

Predisposing factors

General

Pathophysiology

  • Inflammation of the lacrimal sac or nasolacrimal duct.
  • Presence of foreign body results in inflammation and secondary bacterial infection.
  • Bacterial infections may extend into the nasolacrimal sac and duct from adjacent tissues.

Timecourse

  • Symptoms may develop in 5-7 days.
  • Duration may be prolonged because the disease is often unresponsive to topical antibiotics.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Whitley R D (2000) Canine and feline primary ocular bacterial infections. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 30 (5), 1151-1167 PubMed.
  • van der Woerdt A, Wilkie D A, Gilger B C et al (1997) Surgical treatment of dacryocystitis caused by cystic dilation of the nasolacrimal system in three dogs. JAVMA 211 (4), 445-447 PubMed.
  • Laing E J, Spiess B & Binnington A G (1988) Dacryocystotomy - a treatment for dacryocystitis in the dog. JAAHA 24, 223-226 AGRIS FAO.
  • Lavach J D, Severin & G A Roberts (1984) Dacryocystitis - a review of 22 cases. JAAHA 20 (3), 463-467 VetMedResource.
  • Johnston G R, Feeney D A (1980) Radiology in ophthalmic diagnosis. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 10 (2), 317-337 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Munger R J (2002)Disorders of the lacrimal and nasolacrimal system.In: Morgan R V, Bright R N, Swartout M S (eds)Handbook of Small Animal Practice. 4th Ed. W B Saunders, Philadephia, pp. 954-963.

 


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