Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Cystitis

Contributor(s): Phil Nicholls, Melissa Wallace

Introduction

  • Inflammation of the bladder.
  • Cause: usually an ascending bacterial infection; predisposing factors are necessary for this opportunistic infection.
  • Signs: stranguria, dysuria, increased frequency of urination (pollakiuria) and small amounts of urine, hematuria.
  • Treatment: antibiotics.
  • Sequelae: ascending urinary tract infections (pyelonephritis), diskospondylitis (rarely), prostatitis, sepsis, urolithiasis.
  • Prognosis: good if uncomplicated; guarded if chronic; poor if secondary to malignant neoplasia.
Print off the owner factsheet Cystitis (bladder inflammation) to give to your client.Follow the diagnostic tree for Recurrent Urinary Tract Infection Recurrent Urinary Tract Infection.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

Predisposing factors

Causes of lower urinary tract infection and/or inflammation

  • Bladder distension (neurological or polyuria) increases binding sites for bacteria and reduces bloodflow in bladder wall.
  • Decreased urethral function.

Pathophysiology

  • It is usually an ascending bacterial infection, less likely a hematogenous infection.
  • Predisposing factors + opportunistic microbes → ascending into bladder → cystitis → pyelonephritis, diskospondylitis, struvite urolithiasis, prostatitis, septicemia.

Timecourse

  • Days to weeks.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Ling G V et al (2001) Interrelations of organism prevalence, specimen collection method, and host age, sex, and breed among 8534 canine urinary tract infections (1969-1995). JVIM 15 (4), 341-347 PubMed.
  • Norris C R, Williams B J et al (2000) Recurrent and persistent urinary tract infections in dogs - 383 cases (1969-1995). JAAHA 36 (6), 484-492 PubMed.
  • Low D A, Braaten B A, Ling G V, Johnson D L & Ruby A L (1988) Isolation and comparison of Escherichia coli strains from canine and human patients with urinary tract infections. Infect Immun 56 (10), 2601-2609 PubMed.
  • Thomsen M K, Svane L C & Poulsen P H (1986) Canine urinary tract infection. Detection, prevalence and therapeutic consequences of bacteriuria. Nord Vet Med 38 (6), 394-402 PubMed.
  • Ginder D R (1974) Urinary tract infection and pyelonephritis due to Escherichia coli in dogs infected with canine adenovirus. J Infect Dis 129 (6), 715-719 PubMed.


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