Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Cor pulmonale

Synonym(s): Pulmonary heart disease

Contributor(s): Kyle Braund, Serena Brownlie

Introduction

  • Cause: pulmonary artery hypertension.
  • Signs: usually few clinical signs; in animals right-sided heart failure is rare.
  • Diagnosis: right heart enlargement (radiography, ultrasonography, ECG) and demonstration of respiratory disease.
  • Treatment: manage underlying cause and symptomatic only.
  • Prognosis: depends on severity of cardiorespiratory changes.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

Specific

  • Dirofilariasis may induce cor pulmonale in dogs, especially those with a history of exercise/work load, leading to right ventricular hypertrophy from increased cardiac outputs and increased pulmonary vascular resistance.

Pathophysiology

  • Right ventricular enlargement as a result of respiratory disease.
  • In some cases may be the first indicator that severe pulmonary disease exists.
  • Increased pulmonary vascular resistance → pulmonary hypertension.
  • This increases the work that the right heart has to do → compensatory hypertrophy of the right ventricle.
  • If hypertension persists then right-sided failure ultimately develops.

Timecourse

  • Weeks to months.
  • Can develop acutely with thromboembolism.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Corcoran B M et al (1999) Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in a Staffordshire Bull Terrier with hypothyroidismJSAP 40 (4), 185-188 PubMed.
  • Miller M W (1998) Canine heartworm disease. Clin Tech Small Anim Pract 13 (2), 113-118 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Dillon R (2000)Dilofilariasis in dogs and cats. In:Textbook of Veterinary internal Medicine, 5th edn Eds S J Ettinger & E C Feldman. Philedelphia: W B Saunders Co. pp 937-963.


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