Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Conjunctiva: neoplasia

Contributor(s): James Oliver

Introduction

  • Cause: multiple. Primary vs secondary. Benign vs malignant.
  • Signs: hyperemia, hemorrhage, chemosis, mass effect, globe displacement, exophthalmos.
  • Diagnosis: histopathological examination of biopsy specimen.
  • Treatment: depends on tumor type. Complete surgical excision may be possible. Chemotherapy and radiation therapy may be useful.
  • Prognosis: depends on tumor type.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • May be primary or secondary:
    • Primary:
      • May arise from any conjunctival tissue.
    • Secondary:
      • From extension of neoplastic diseases from contiguous structures (eg orbit, intraocular structures).
      • Metastasis.
  • Reported examples:
Secondary neoplasm
  • Lymphoma Lymphoma - may be secondary.

Pathophysiology

  • Melanoma:
    • Most commonly affect nictitans.
    • UV irradiation may predispose.
    • Usually malignant, metastasis common.
  • Squamous cell carcinoma:
    • Infrequent.
    • Perilimbal region.
    • UV irradiation may predispose.
  • Mast cell tumors:
    • May be history of intermittent swelling.
    • Rarely metastasize.
  • Hemangioma and hemangiosarcoma:
    • UV irradiation can induce malignancy.
  • Papillomas:
    • Young dogs.
  • Lymphoma:
    • Usually associated with systemic disease.

Timecourse

  • Usually slowly growing over months.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Fife M, Blocker T, Fife T et al (2011) Canine conjunctival mast cell tumors: a retrospective study. Vet Ophthalmol 14 (3), 153-160 PubMed.
  • Brandes K, Fritsche J, Mueller N et al (2009) Detection of oral papillomavirus DNA in conjunctival epithelial hyperplastic lesions of three dogs. Vet Pathol 46 (1), 34-38 PubMed.
  • Pirie C G, Knollinger A M, Thomas C B et al (2006) Canine conjunctival haemangioma and haemangiosarcoma: a retrospective evaluation of 108 cases (1989-2004). Vet Ophthalmol (4), 215-226 PubMed.
  • Mughannam A J, Hache D V & Spangle W et al (1997) Conjunctival vascular tumours in 6 dogs. Vet Comp Ophthalmol (1), 56-59 VetMedResource.
  • Sansom J, Barnett K C, Blunden A S, Smith K C, Turner S & Waters L (1996) Canine conjunctival papilloma - a review of five cases. JSAP 37, 84-86 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Gould D & McLellan G (2014)BSAVA Manual of Small Animal Ophthalmology.3rd edn.
  • Gelatt K N (2013)Veterinary Ophthalmology.5th edn. Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins.


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