Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Chalazion

Contributor(s): Rhea Morgan

Introduction

  • Non-tumorous enlargement of a Meibomian gland of the eyelid.
  • Cause: often unknown.
  • Signs: focal enlargement and discoloration of the gland.
  • Diagnosis: ophthalmic examination.
  • Treatment: none usually required, curettage.
  • Prognosis: good.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Precipitating cause is usually not known.
  • May have a history of prior Meibomian gland inflammation.

Predisposing factors

General
  • None defined.

Pathophysiology

  • The development of a chalazion probably begins with obstruction of the duct of the Meibomian gland. It is not known whether this obstruction is secondary to trauma, inflammation, or inspissation of the sebaceous secretions of the gland.
  • Sebaceous material accumulates within the gland, causing a focal enlargement of the gland.
  • Mild inflammation occurs, with production of a small inflammatory granuloma.
  • Adjacent Meibomian glands may become transiently and mildly inflamed.
  • Infection is not present within the gland once a chalazion has occurred, although prior infection of the gland may be a predisposing cause.
  • Most chalazia become quiescent with time, developing into focal white or yellow rounded swellings at the base of the Meibomian gland. They do not usually increase in size over time.
  • They are often incidental findings that produce no clinical signs.
  • If the Meibomian gland ruptures, then a dramatic lipid, pyogranulomatous inflammation may develop with production of a progressively enlarging mass. This pyogranulomatous mass is no longer classified as a chalazion, and usually requires interventive therapy (ie surgical excision).

Timecourse

  • Months to years.

Epidemiology

  • None.
  • Visible mass within the eyelid.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Barrie K P, Parshall C J (1979) Eyelid pyogranulomas in four dogs. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 14 (4), 433-438 VetMedResource.

Other sources of information

  • Slatter D (2001)Eyelids.In: Slatter D:Fundamentals of Veterinary Ophthalmology. 3rd Ed. W B Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 147-203.
  • Magrane W G (1971)diseases and surgery of the lids and lacrimal apparatus. In: Magrane G:Canine Ophthalmology.2nd Ed. Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia, pp 52-79.


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