Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Cognitive dysfunction syndrome

Synonym(s): Canine cognitive dysfunction, CCD, CDS, canine dementia, canine senility, cognitive decline, age-related behavior problems

Contributor(s): Jon Bowen, Danielle Gunn-Moore, Petra A Mertens

Introduction

  • Cognitive dysfunction is an age-related neurodegenerative disease that impairs memory and learning.
  • Symptoms and histopathological findings of CDS resemble forms of dementia seen in Alzheimer patients (Dementia Alzheimers Type (DAT)).
  • CDS can manifest itself in multiple unspecific clinical signs that increase in quantity and severity over time in affected dogs.
    Print off the owner factsheet on Cognitive dysfunction to give to your client.

Pathogenesis

Pathophysiology

  • Beta amyloid deposition (with localized inflammatory effects). Beta amyloid is neurotoxic.
  • Increased number of free radicals and impaired antioxidant mechanism leading to increased oxidative damage.
  • Reduction in cerebral blood flow (arteriosclerosis, cerebral ischemia, chronic hypoxia (reduced cardiac function)).
  • Decreased number of neurons (cell death due to hypoxia and neurotoxicity effects) and increase of glial cells.
  • Decreased neurotransmitter concentration (acetylcholine, serotonin, dopamine).
  • Increased monoamine oxidase B concentration and decreased dopamine concentration.
  • Anemia.
  • Hypertension Hypertension (due to, eg kidney disease, diabetes Diabetes mellitus , Cushings disease Hyperadrenocorticism ).

Epidemiology

  • More than one quarter of the canines seen in veterinary practices belong to the population of dogs that are at risk to develop CDS (7 years of age or older).
  • Approximately 60% of 11 year old dogs show signs of CDS.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Reme C A, Dramard V et al (2008) Effect of S-adenosylmethionine tablets on the reduction of age-related mental decline in dogs: a double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. Vet Ther 9, 69-82 PubMed.
  • Landsberg G (2006) Therapeutic options for cognitive decline in senior pets. JAAHA 42 (6), 407-413 PubMed.
  • Kealy R D, Lawler D E, Ballam J M et al (2002) Effects of diet restriction on life span and age-related changes in dogs. JAVMA 220 (9), 1315-1350 PubMed.
  • Bain M J, Hart B L & Cliff K D et al (2001) Predicting changes associated with age-related cognitive impairment in dogs. JAVMA 218 (11), 1792-1795 PubMed.
  • Hart B L (2001) Effects of gonadectomy on subsequent development of age-related cognitive impairment in dogs. JAVMA 219 (1), 51-56 PubMed.
  • Neilson J C, Hart B L, Cliff K D et al (2001) Prevalence of behavioral changes associated with age-related cognitive impairment in dogs. JAVMA 218 (11), 1787-1791 PubMed.
  • Siwak C T, Gruet P, Woehrle F et al (2000) Comparison of the effects of adrafinil, propentofylline, and nicergoline on behavior in aged dogs. Am J Vet Res 61 (11), 1410-1414 PubMed.
  • Bobik M, Thompson T & Russell M J (1994) Amyloid deposition in various breeds of dog. Abstracts in Neuroscience 20, 172.

Other sources of information

  • Heath S (2002)Behaviour problems of the geriatric pet.In: Horwitz, Mills D, Heath S (eds)BSAVA Manual of Canine and Feline Behavioural Medicine. British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

Organisation(s)


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