Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Canine adenovirus type 1 disease

Synonym(s): CAV-1, infectious canine hepatitis

Contributor(s): Lynelle Johnson, Bryn Tennant

Introduction

  • Cause: canine adenovirus type 1.
  • Signs: hepatitis, kennel cough Acute infectious tracheobronchitis , mortality in newly-weaned puppies and young dogs.
  • Diagnosis: history, signs, virus isolation.
  • Treatment: supportive care, symptomatic management.
  • Prognosis: good if mild, poor if severe.
Print off the owner factsheet Infectious hepatitis  Infectious hepatitis to give to your client.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Adenovirus serologically related to canine adenovirus type 2 Canine adenovirus type 2.
  • Cross-protective immunity between canine adenoviruses 1 and 2.
  • 75 nm DNA virus, without lipoprotein envelope.
  • Moderately resistant: survives in environment from days to months.
  • Infectivity destroyed at 56°C → disinfect kennels with steam for >5 min.
  • Resistant to many disinfectants; susceptible to quaternary ammonium compounds.
  • Range of virulence.

Predisposing factors

General
  • Young dogs.

Specific

  • Seronegative; unvaccinated.

Pathophysiology

  • Infection by oronasal route → primary replication in tonsils and regional lymph nodes.
  • Release of virus → viremia; free virions in plasma within 8-72 hours.
  • Target organs: liver and kidneys → secondary replication in hepatic parenchymal cells and reticuloendothelial system.
  • Direct effects of viral replication → cell lysis/necrosis → clinical signs.
  • Focal areas of hepatocellular destruction may coalesce → hepatic necrosis → jaundice.
  • Infection of endothelial cells → effusions and hemorrhagic diathesis.
  • Immune-mediated keratitis → corneal edema.
  • Immune-mediated glomerulonephritis.
  • Either death or recovery with urinary excretion of virus for up to 1 year.
  • Recovered dogs have life-long immunity.

Timecourse

  • Incubation period 4-7 days → viremia.
  • Fever for 24 hours.
  • Mild cases recover in 1-2 days.
  • Moderate hepatitis cases recover in 3-5 days.
  • Virus may be shed in urine for at least 6-9 months after recovery.

Epidemiology

  • Acutely infected dogs shed virus in all body secretions/fluids.
  • CAV-1 may localize in renal tubules → virus shed in urine for at least 6-9 months post-recovery.
  • Infection by oronasal route from contaminated environment; rarely by aerosol.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Greene C E (1994) Diagnosis, therapy and prevention of common infectious disease in the dog. Vet Q 16 (Suppl 1), 2S-5S PubMed.
  • Thornburg C P (1988) A study of canine hepatobiliary diseases Part 6 - Infectious hepatopathies. Comp Anim Prac 2, 13-20 AGRIS FAO.


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