ISSN 2398-2969      

Brain: ependymoma

icanis
Contributor(s):

Laurent Garosi

Synonym(s): Medulloblastoma, neuroblastoma, brain neoplasia


Introduction

  • Rare tumor (<2% of neuroglial tumors), more frequent in brachycephalic breeds.
  • May cause acquired hydrocephalus.
  • Signs: as in space-occupying lesions in the brain. Additional signs due to obstructive hydrocephalus and uncompensated intracranial hypertension.
  • Diagnosis: signs, MRI, definitive diagnosis only by biopsy (often post-mortem).
  • Treatment: symptomatic, radiotherapy, ventriculoperitoneal shunting.
  • Prognosis: tend to invade the ventricular system, commonly metastasize in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) system.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Neoplasm of the lining epithelium of the ventricles and spinal cord central canal.

Predisposing factors

General
  • Presently unknown.

Specific

  • Presently unknown.

Pathophysiology

  • Ependymomas are histologically benign neoplasms which arise from the epithelial lining of the ventricles and spinal cord central canal.
  • These tumors have a propensity to penetrate brain parenchyma and may invade the ventricular system and meninges by exfoliation of neoplastic cells and drop metastasis in cerebrospinal pathways.
  • Malignant transformation is rare. Because of their ventricular orientation ependymomas have a tendency to obstruct cerebrospinal pathways, particularly when thay arise in the fourth ventricle. The resultant is obstructive hydrocephalus.
  • They occur most commonly in lateral/third ventricles.
  • Space-occupying lesion → local brain compression and zone of edema around tumor → focal interference with brain function → tumor growth → progressive focal neurological deficits; often occurs in the ventricular system → acquired obstructive hydrocephalus.

Timecourse

  • Insidious onset.

Diagnosis

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Treatment

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Outcomes

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Dickinson P J (2014) Advances in diagnostic and treatment modalities for intracranial tumors. JVIM 28, 1165-1185 PubMed.
  • Rossmeisl J H Jr, Jones J C, Zimmerman K L et al (2013) Survival time following hospital discharge in dogs with palliatively treated primary brain tumors. JAVMA 242, 193-198 PubMed.
  • Rodenas S, Pumarola M, Gaitero L et al (2011) Magnetic resonace imageing findings in 40 dogs with histologically confirmed intracranial tumours. Vet J 187, 218-225 PubMed.
  • Synder J M, Shofer F S, Van Winkle K A (2008) Canine intracranial primary neoplasia: 173 cases (1986-2003). JVIM 22, 172-177 PubMed.
  • Thomas W T, Wheeler S J et al (1996) MRI features of primary brain tumors in dogs. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 37 (1), 20-27 Wiley Online Library.
  • Keller E T & Madewell B R (1992) Locations and types of neoplasms in immature dogs - 69 cases (1964-1989). JAVMA 200 (10), 1530-1532 PubMed.
  • Heidner G L, Kornegay J N, Page R L et al (1991) Radiotherapy of brain tumors in dogs. J Vet Intern Med (4), 219-226 Wiley Online Library.
  • Bailey C S & Higgins R J (1986) Characteristics of cisternal CSF associated with primary brain tumors in the dog. A retrospective study. JAMVA 188 (4), 414-417 PubMed.
  • Turrel J M et al (1986) Computed tomographic characteristics of primary brain tumors in 50 dogs. JAVMA 188 (8), 851-856 PubMed.
  • Vandervelde M et al (1985) Immunocytochemical studies in canine neuroectodermal brain tumours. Acta Neuropathol 66 (2), 111-116 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Braund K G (1994)Clinical syndromes in veterinary neurology.2nd edn. St. Louis: Mosby Year Book. pp 198-207.
  • Braund K G & Rebas J L (1985)Brain ventricular tumors.ACVIM Proceedings, 3rd Annual Forum, San Diego, June 1-4. pp 157-158.

Can’t find what you’re looking for?

We have an ever growing content library on Vetlexicon so if you ever find we haven't covered something that you need please fill in the form below and let us know!

 
 
 
 

To show you are not a Bot please can you enter the number showing adjacent to this field

 Security code