ISSN 2398-2969      

Blindness

icanis

Introduction

  • Cause:
    • Intra-ocular disease (congenital disease (eg retinal dysplasia, collie eye anomaly), corneal opacity, uveitis (numerous causes), cataract, glaucoma, retinal detachment, inherited retinal degeneration, (eg progressive retinal atrophy, retinal pigment epithelial dystrophy), sudden acquired retinal degeneration syndrome (SARDS), dietary deficiency (eg Vitamin E), toxicity (eg ivermectin), intra-ocular neoplasia, intraocular hemorrhage and trauma).
    • Optic nerve disease (optic neuritis, optic nerve or perineural tumor, compression of optic nerve by retrobulbar space occupying lesion).
    • Intracranial disease (congenital disease (eg hydrocephalus), immune-mediated disease (eg GME, neoplasia, toxicity (eg lead), dietary deficiency (eg thiamine), metabolic disease (eg neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis, lysosomal storage disease, hepatic encephalopathy), infections (eg distemper), consequence of hypoxia, trauma).
      Follow the diagnostic tree for Blindness.
  • It is important to localize where the lesion is occurring to target appropriate diagnostic procedures.
  • Signs: obvious blindness.
  • Diagnosis: recognition of blindness, diagnosis of underlying disease.
  • Treatment: treat underlying cause where possible.
  • Prognosis: variable; occasionally total blindness can be reversible depending on cause.
    Print off the owner factsheet Living with a blind dog to give to your client.

Pathogenesis

Predisposing factors

General

Timecourse

  • Slow progressive sight loss.
  • Acute or peracute blindness.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Gelatt K N (1998) Visual disturbance - where do I look? JSAP 38 (8), 328-335 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Petersen-Jones S & Crispin S (2002)BSAVA Manual of Small Animal Ophthalmology.2nd edn. British Small Animal Veterinary Association. ISBN 0 905214 54 4.

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