Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Bladder: polypoid cystitis

Synonym(s): Polypoid cystitis

Contributor(s): Larry G Adams, Richard Squires

Introduction

  • Polypoid cystitis is an uncommon urinary tract disorder of dogs that causes hematuria and other signs of lower urinary tract inflammation.
  • It is thought that chronic inflammation in the urinary bladder may lead to epithelial and stromal proliferation, eventually leading to polyp formation.
  • Typically, the polyps consist of proliferative epithelium surrounding inflamed, hemorrhagic, connective tissue stroma. Grossly, the bladder mucosa may be thrown up into folds or may have villous mucosal projections up to several cm in length. In some cases, the bladder wall simply appears abnormally thickened, but histopathologic examination reveals typical polypoid changes.
  • Polypoid cystitis usually develops in the cranial ventral bladder wall, whereas transitional cell carcinomas more commonly arise from the bladder neck region. Grossly, it is impossible to distinguish polyps from carcinomas with complete confidence and histopathologic confirmation of the diagnosis is required.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Chronic inflammation is thought to stimulate epithelial and connective tissue proliferation leading to the formation of polyps. Many animals with polypoid cystitis have concurrent bacterial urinary tract infection. It has therefore been hypothesized that chronic bacterial cystitis may lead to polyp formation. However, it is equally plausible that polyps predispose to bacterial cystitis Cystitis.

Predisposing factors

General
  • Chronic inflammation or irritation is thought to induce polyp formation. In humans, indwelling bladder catheters induce polyp formation.

Specific

  • It has been hypothesized, but not proven, that urinary tract infections, cystic calculi and bladder neoplasia Bladder: neoplasia may predispose to polyp formation.

Pathophysiology

  • Not yet fully understood.

Timecourse

  • It is thought that chronic inflammation stimulates polyps to develop over weeks to months.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Takiguchi M, Inaba M (2005) Diagnostic ultrasound of polypoid cystitis in dogs. J Vet Med Sci 67 (1), 57-61 PubMed.
  • Martinez I, Mattoon J S, Eaton K A, Chew D J, DiBartola S P (2003) Polypoid cystitis in 17 dogs (1978-2001). J Vet Int Med 17 (4), 499-509 PubMed.
  • Cooper J E, Brearley M J (1986) Urothelial abnormalities in the dog. Vet Rec 118 (18), 513-514 PubMed.
  • Johnston S D, Osborne C A, Stevens J B(1975) Canine polypoid cystitis. JAVMA 166 (12), 1155-1160 PubMed.


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