Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Baclofen poisoning

Contributor(s): Kyle Braund

Introduction

  • Synthetic analogue of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA).
  • Used in human medicine as a skeletal muscle spasm relaxant.
  • Reports of overdosage have not been associated with fatality in man.
  • In humans, overdosage is associated with unconsciousness and hypotonia lasting up to 3 days.
  • Signs: convulsions have been reported in human patients with epilepsy.
  • Diagnosis: history and clinical signs.
  • Treatment: forced diuresis.
  • Prognosis: probably good but little known.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Accidental ingestion of Baclofen, a drug used to prevent spasticity resulting from multiple sclerosis in people.

Pathophysiology

  • The precise mode of action is not known, but a major effect is pre-synaptic inhibition.
  • No effect on neuromuscular transmission.
  • 80% of a single dose is excreted in the first 24 hours, with the remainder being excreted within 72 hours.
  • Poorly absorbed by the CNS (1/10 that of plasma).
  • Centrally acting muscle relaxant and an analog of the neurotransmitter GABA. May inhibit monosynaptic and polysynaptic reflexes at the spinal cord level.

Timecourse

  • Signs of poisoning seen within 1-6 hours.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Hecht D V & Allenspach K (1998) Presumptive Baclofen intoxication in a dog. J Vet Emerg Crit Care 8 (1), 49-54 VetMedResource.
  • Kruszewska A (1988) The role of GABA in morphine abstinence in rats. Drug Alcohol Depend 21 (1), 37-41 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • MIMS Annual.MIMS Australia. ISSN 0725-4709.

Organisation(s)


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