Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Aspergillosis: disseminated

Contributor(s): Lynelle Johnson, Rhea Morgan, Mellora Sharman

Introduction

  • CauseAspergillus spp (most commonly Aspergillus terreus Aspergillus terreus), infection by spores (usually inhaled).
  • Signs: severe debilitating disease that affects many body organs.
  • Disseminated aspergillosis is typically seen in German shepherd dogs German Shepherd Dog.
  • Diagnosis: cytology, histopathology, microbiology.
  • Treatment: difficult; systemic itraconazole Itraconazole , amphotericin B Amphotericin B.
  • Prognosis: grave.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • A. terreus.
  • A. deflectus.
  • A. fumigatus.
  • A. niger.
  • A. flavipes.

Predisposing factors

General

  • Access to saprophytic fungi in soil and decaying vegetation.

Specific

  • Affected German shepherd dogs may have specific immune defects.
  • Defect in mucocutaneous immunity.
  • Concurrent treatment with corticosteroids or other immunosuppressive drugs (cyclosporine in particular).

Pathophysiology

  • Inhalation of fungal spores causes a local pulmonary infection.
  • Defective mucosal immunity allows the fungal infection to become systemic. It spreads hematogenously to multiple organs, including the kidneys, bones, vertebra, liver, spleen, adrenal glands, heart, brain, eyes, etc.

Timecourse

  • Some cases: rapid progression over 2-3 weeks.
  • Other cases, more gradual.

Epidemiology

  • Worldwide, ubiquitous saprophytic fungi → inhalation of fungal spores.
  • A. terreus: from soil, decaying vegetation, grain.
  • A. deflectus: from soil.
  • A. fumigatus: from decaying vegetation, sewage sludge, compost, moldy hay, etc.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Corrigan V K, Legendre A M, Wheat L J et al (2015) Treatment of disseminated aspergillosis with posaconazole in 10 dogs. JVIM 30 (1), 167-173 PubMed.
  • Taylor A R, Young B D, Levine G J et al (2015) Clinical features and magnetic resonance imaging findings in 7 dogs with central nervous systemic aspergillosis. JVIM 29 (6), 1556-1563 PubMed.
  • Schultz R M, Johnson E G, Wisner E R et al (2008) Clincopathologic and diagnostic imaging characteristics of systemic aspergillosis in 30 dogs. JVIM 22 (4), 851-859 PubMed.
  • Robinson W F, Connole M D, King T J et al (2000) Systemic mycosis due to Aspergillus deflectus in a dog. Aust Vet J 78 (9), 600-602 PubMed.
  • Pérez J, Mozos E, DeLara F E et al (1996) Disseminated aspergillosis in a dog: an immunohistochemical study. J Comp Path 115 (2), 191-196 PubMed.
  • Starkey R J & McLoughlin M A (1996) Treatment of renal aspergillosis in a dog using nephrostomy tubes. J Vet Intern Med 10 (5), 336-338 PubMed.
  • Kelly S E, Shaw S E, Clark W T (1995) Long-term survival of four dogs with disseminated Aspergillus terreus infection treated with itraconazole. Aust Vet J 72 (8), 311-313 PubMed.
  • Kaufman A C, Greene C E, Selcer B E et al (1994) Systemic aspergillosis in a dog and treatment with hamycin. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 30 (2), 132-136 VetMedResource.
  • Neer T M (1988) Disseminated aspergillosis. Compend Contin Educ Pract Vet 10 (4), 465-471 VetMedResource.

Other sources of information

  • Day M J (2012) Canine disseminated aspergillosis. In: Greene C E Infectious diseases of the Dog and Cat. 4th edn. W B Saunders, Philadelphia. p 412.


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