ISSN 2398-2969      

Arthritis: rickettsial

icanis

Introduction

  • Tick-transmitted non-erosive polyarthritis.
  • Cause:Ehrlicia Ewingii(granulocytic ehrlichiosis),Anaplasma phagocytophilum(granulocytic canine anaplasmosis),Rickettsia rickettsii(Rocky Mountain Spotted fever; RMSF).
  • Signs: polyarthropathy (eg reluctance to rise, reluctance to walk, "walking on eggshells" gait, shifting lameness), fever, inappetence, neurologic signs most common.
  • Diagnosis: clinical signs, compatible laboratory findings (sometimes including identification morulae), serology, molecular diagnostics.
  • Treatment: tetracyclines.
  • Prognosis: for granulocytic ehrlichiosis and granulocytic canine anaplasmosis, prognosis is excellent. For Rocky Mountain spotted fever, prognosis is good with early treatment but the disease can be fatal.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Ehrlichia Ewingii(granulocytic ehrlichiosis).
  • Anaplasma phagocytophilum(granulocytic canine anaplasmosis).
  • Rickettsia rickettsii(Rocky Mountain spotted fever; RMSF).

Specific

  • Tick bites by infected ticks.

Pathophysiology

  • Hematogenous spread of causal organism to synovial membrane → inflammatory reaction within joint → non-erosive polyarthritis Arthritis: non-erosive.

Diagnosis

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Treatment

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Prevention

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Outcomes

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Eberts M D, Vissotto de Paiva Diniz P P, Beall M J, Stillman B A, Chandrashekar R & Breitschwerdt E B (2011) Typical and atypical manifestations of Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection in dogs. JAAHA 47, e86-94 PubMed.
  • Yabsley M J, Adams D S, O'Connor T P, Chandrashekar R & Little S E (2011) Experimental primary and secondary infections of domestic dogs with Ehrlichia ewingii. Vet Microbiol 150, 315-321 PubMed.
  • Nicholson W L, Allen K E, McQuiston J H, Breitschwerdt E B & Little E (2010) The increasing recognition of rickettsial pathogens in dogs and people. Trends Parasitol 26 (4), 205-212 PubMed.
  • Carrade D D, Foley J E, Borjesson D L & Sykes J E (2009) Canine granulocytic anaplasmosis: a review. J Vet Intern Med 23, 1129-1141 PubMed.
  • Beall M J, Chandrashekar R, Eberts M D, Cyr K E, Diniz P P, Mainville C, Hegarty B C, Crawford J M & Breitschwerdt E B (2008) Serological and molecular prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Ehrlichia species in dogs from Minnesota. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 8, 455-464 PubMed.
  • Gasser A M, Birkenheuer A J & Breitschwerdt E B (2001) Canine Rocky Mountain Spotted fever: a retrospective study of 30 cases. JAAHA 37, 41-48 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Infectious diseases of the dog and cat.(2012) C.E. Greene (ed). 4th edn, Elsevier Saunders:
    • Rocky Mountain and Mediterranean Spotted Fevers, cat-flea Typhuslike illness, Rickettsialpox, and Typhus.C E Greene, L. Kidd, E B Breitschwerdt. Chapter 27, p 259.
    • Ehrlichia and Anaplasma infections.C G Cocayne, L A Cohn.Ehrlichia ewingii infection (canine granulocytotropic ehrlichiosis)Chapter 26, p 238.
    • Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection (canine granulocytotropic anaplasmosis).P P Diniz, E B Breitschwerdt. p 244.
    • Joint infections.C E Greene, David Bennett. p 908.

Can’t find what you’re looking for?

We have an ever growing content library on Vetlexicon so if you ever find we haven't covered something that you need please fill in the form below and let us know!

 
 
 
 

To show you are not a Bot please can you enter the number showing adjacent to this field

 Security code