Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Anemia: non-regenerative

Contributor(s): Prof Bernard Feldman, Clare Knottenbelt, Yvonne McGrotty

Introduction

  • See Anemia - overview Anemia: overview.
  • Develops gradually as diseased bone marrow fails to replace ageing erythrocytes.
  • Animals compensate well.
  • Cause: systemic disorders, eg iron-deficiency anemia, chronic renal failure and other chronic disease, lead poisoning; primary bone marrow disorders, eg pure red cell aplasia, aplastic anemia, myeloproliferative disease.
  • Diagnosis: hematology - anisocytosis, low reticulocytes.
  • Treatment: eliminate underlying etiology.
  • Prognosis: depends on etiology, bone marrow neoplasia/myelofibrosis - incurable.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

Systemic disorders

Primary bone marrow disorders (moderate to severe anemia)

Pathophysiology

  • Normal erythropoiesis is disturbed. This may be due to:
    • Diseased bone marrow failing to produce erythrocytes.
    • Failure of erythropoietin production by kidney.
    • Iron deficiency which results in insufficient "raw materials" to produce red cells.
  • Circulating erythrocyte lifespan is about 100 days → failure to replace lost erythrocytes → anemia develops gradually.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Knottenbelt C M (2002) "The pathophysiology of anaemia in the dog and cat." UK Vet (2), 47-54.
  • Knottenbelt C M (2002) "The treatment of anaemia in the dog and cat." UK Vet (2), 57-65.
  • Cowgill L D, James K M, Levy J K, Browne J K, Miller A, Lobingier R T, Egrie J C (1998) Use of recombinant human erythropoietin for management of anemia in dogs and cats with renal failure. JAVMA 15, 212 (4), 521-528 PubMed.
  • Pechereau D, Martel P & Braun J P (1997) Plasma erythropoietin concentrations in dogs and cats: reference values and changes in anemia or chronic renal failure. Res Vet Sci 62, 185-188 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Weiss D J (2009)Nonregenerative anemias.In:Kirks' Current Veterinary Therapy XIV.Bonagura J C & Twedt D C (eds), Philadelphia: W B Saunders. pp 272-276.
  • Abrams-Ogg A (2010)Nonregenerative anemia.In:Textbook of Veterinary Internal Medicine 7th Edition.Ed S J Ettinger & E C Feldman, W B Saunders, Philadelphia. pp 788-796.
  • Hasler A (2000)Anemia of chronic renal disease.In:Manual of Canine and Feline Haematology and Transfusion Medicine. Day M J, Mackin A & Littlewood J D (eds). BSAVA Publications, Gloucester, pp 59-66.
  • Stone M (2000)Iron deficiency anaemia.In:Manual of Canine and Feline Haematology and Transfusion Medicine. Day M J, Mackin A & Littlewood J D (eds). BSAVA Publications, Gloucester, pp 53-58.
  • Waner R & Harrus S (2000)Anaemia of inflammatory disease.In:Schalm's Veterinary Haematology, fiifth edition. Ed Feldman B F, Zinkl J & Jain N. Lippencott, Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia. pp 205-209.


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