ISSN 2398-2969      

Alphachloralose poisoning

icanis
Contributor(s):

John Dodam


Introduction

  • Rodenticide, bird and mole killer.
  • Hypnotic, acting specifically on medulla.
  • Minimal lethal dose: 200-500 mg/kg.
  • Signs: progressive depression leading to death or recovery within 1-2 days.
  • Diagnosis: history, clinical signs.
  • Treatment: no antidote; emesis (within 2 hours of ingestion), then symptomatic.
  • Prognosis: excellent if animal survives first 48 hours.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Rodenticide.
  • Bird and mole poisons.

Pathophysiology

  • LD50: 100-400 mg/kg.
    Commercial preparations usually contain 2-4% active ingredient.
  • Metabolized to chloroethanol which is CNS depressant.
  • Excreted, as inactive form, in urine.

Timecourse

  • Affected within hours of ingestion → death or recovery in 24-48 hours.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Segev G, Yas-Natan E, Schlosberg A & Aroch I (2006) Alpha-chloralose poisoning in dogs and cats: a retrospective study of 33 canine and 13 feline confirmed casesVet J 172 (1), 109-113 PubMed.
  • Foster D (1995) Alphachloralose. In Practice 17 (8), 381 + 469 VetMedResource.

Other sources of information

  • Lorgue G, Lechenet J & Riviere A (1996)Clinical Veterinary Toxicology.Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications. pp 38-39. ISBN-0-632-03269-3.
  • Lorenz M D & Cornelius L MSmall Animal Medical Diagnosis.Lippincott. ISBN-0-397-50555-8.

Organisation(s)

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