Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Acute myeloid leukemia

Synonym(s): Acute granulocytic leukemia, AML, AGL

Introduction

  • Cause: arises from neoplastic transformation and proliferation of early myeloid precursor cells.
  • Aggressive and rapidly progressive disease of unknown etiology.
  • Signs: non-specific and due to consequences of abnormal marrow function, ie anemia, thrombocytopenia, neutropenia.
  • Diagnosis: by recognition of neoplastic cells in peripheral blood and in bone marrow - may require cytochemical stains to distinguish different neoplastic cell types.
  • Treatment: supportive and specific cytotoxic drugs.
  • Prognosis: very poor.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Unknown.

Pathophysiology

  • Replacement of bone marrow with neoplastic cells → anemia, thrombocytopenia, neutropenia → lethargy, bleeding, susceptibility to overwhelming sepsis.
  • Infiltration of other organs with neoplastic cells → neurological signs, bone pain, organ dysfunction.
  • Increased numbers of circulating cells → hyperviscosity.

Timecourse

  • Weeks.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers


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