ISSN 2398-2969      

Acute hemorrhagic diarrhea syndrome (AHDS)

icanis

Synonym(s): Hemorrhagic gastroenteritis (HGE)


Introduction

  • Cause: most likely a toxin produced by Clostridium perfringens.
  • Signs: peracute onset of bloody diarrhea and vomiting.
  • Diagnosis: compatible clinical signs, and exclusion of other causes.
  • Treatment: needs to be aggressive and is primarily symptomatic/supportive (fluids, antiemetics).
  • Prognosis: usually good if animals receive prompt treatment.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Unknown for certain.
  • Enterotoxins are the most logical explanation for the mucosal destruction reported.
  • A primary pathogenic role for Clostridium perfringens Clostridium perfringens , or its toxins, is suspected Clostridial enterotoxicosis.
  • Large numbers of rod shaped bacteria to the necrotic mucosal surfaces of dogs with AHDS have been reported.
  • These bacteria have been identified as Clostridium perfringens.
  • In 2015, a novel pre-forming toxin named net Fwas discovered in an isolate of C. perfringens from a dog that died of AHDS. The authors then found a highly significant association between the presence of C. perfringens type A strains carrying the gene for this toxin and cases of canine AHDS.
  • They also found a similar association for the similar disease in horses (foal necrotizing enterocolitis).

Predisposing factors

General

  • None known. The disease affects previously healthy dogs.
  • The syndrome is more likely to occur during the winter months.

Pathophysiology

  • Rapid loss of fluid and protein into the GI tract.
  • Rapid development of dehydration, collapse, possible acute kidney injury Kidney: acute kidney injury (AKI) and DIC.

Timecourse

  • Can progress within hours.

Epidemiology

  • Unknown.

Diagnosis

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Treatment

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Prevention

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Outcomes

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Mortier F, Strohmeyer K, Hartmann K, Unterer S (2015) Acute haemorrhagic diarrhoea syndrome in dogs: 108 cases. Vet Rec 176 (24), 627 PubMed.
  • Busch K, Sucoldolski J S, Kuhner K A, Minamoto Y, Steiner J M, Mueller R S, Hartmann K, Unterer S (2015) Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin and Clostridium difficile toxin A/B do not play a role in acute haemorrhagic diarrhoea syndrome in dogs. Vet Rec 176 (10), 253 PubMed.
  • Gohari I M, Parreira V R, Nowell V J, Nicholson V M, Oliphant K, Prescott J F (2015) A novel pore-forming toxin in Type A Clostridium perfringens is associated with both fatal canine hemorrhagic gastroenteritis and Fatal Foal Necrotizing Entercolitis. PLoS One 10 (4) PubMed.
  • Unterer S, Lechner E, Mueller R S, Wolf G, Straubinger R K, Schulz B S, Hartmann K (2015) Prospective study of bacteraemia in acute haemorrhagic diarrhoea syndrome in dogs. Vet Rec 176 (12), 309 PubMed.
  • Marks S L, Rankin S C, Bryne B A, Weese J S (2011) Enteropathogenic bacteria in dogs and cats: diagnosis, epidemiology, treatment, and control. JVIM 25 (6), 1195-1208 PubMed.
  • Unterer S, Strohmeyer K, Kruse B D, Sauter-Louis C, Hartmann K (2011) Treatment of aseptic dogs with hemorrhagic gastroenteritis with amoxicillin/clavulanic acid: a prospective blinded study. JVIM 25 (5), 973-979 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Mortier F, Yoo T-E, Strohmeyer K, Hartmann K, Unterer S (2013) Idiopathic acute haemorrhagic diarrhoea syndrome in dogs: 108 cases. Abstract, Proceedings of ECVIM Congress, Liverpool, UK.

Can’t find what you’re looking for?

We have an ever growing content library on Vetlexicon so if you ever find we haven't covered something that you need please fill in the form below and let us know!