ISSN 2398-2969      

Acromegaly

icanis

Synonym(s): Excess growth hormone


Introduction

  • Chronic overgrowth of connective tissue and bone.
  • Cause: persistent excessive growth hormone (GH).
  • Signs:
    • May be mild glucose intolerance or overt diabetes mellitus because GH diabetogenic.
    • Cardiomyopathy; systolic murmur, gallop.
    • Congestive heart failure; pleural effusion, pulmonary edema.
    • Arthritis.
  • Diagnosis: biochemistry, urinalysis, radiography.
  • Treatment: mild erythrocytosis with severe insulin resistant diabetes mellitus can be controlled with high insulin dose BID (isophane insulin injection (NPH)).
  • Prognosis: survival time 8-30 months. Most die of complications, eg CHF, CRF, neurological signs.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Progesterone induced.
    Either Prolonged administration of progestagens → hypertrophy and hyperplasia of pituitary somatotrophs.
    Or Following diestrus: mammary gland → excess GH → circulation and into milk.
    Or Pituitary neoplasia (rarely).
    Some progestagens are diabetogenic independently of GH effects, possibly mediated through their glucocorticoid activity.
  • Pituitary neoplasia - large acidophil adenomas.
  • Hypothalamic neoplasia.

Pathophysiology

  • Growth hormone → insulin-like growth factors synthesized and released from liver → promotion of cartilage, bone, cardiac and skeletal muscle and connective tissue growth.
  • Growth hormone also → lipolysis and hyperglycemia.

Diagnosis

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Treatment

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Outcomes

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to obtain ten tokens to view any ten Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds or videos, or Login

Further Reading

Publications

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Schwedes C S (1999) Transient diabetes insipidus in a dog with acromegaly. JSAP 40 (8), 392-396 PubMed.
  • Van Herpen et al (1994) Production of antibodies to biosynthetic human growth hormone in the dog. Vet Rec 134 (7), 171 PubMed.
  • Rijnberk et al (1993) Disturbed release of growth hormone in mature dogs - a comparison with congenital growth hormone deficiency. Vet Rec 133 (22), 542-545 PubMed.
  • Selman P J et al (1991) Progestins and growth hormone excess in the dog. Acta Endocrinologica 125 Suppl 1, 42-7 PubMed.
  • Campbell K L (1988) Growth hormone-related disorders in dogs. Comp Cont Ed 10 (4), 477-482 VetMedResource.

Can’t find what you’re looking for?

We have an ever growing content library on Vetlexicon so if you ever find we haven't covered something that you need please fill in the form below and let us know!