Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

1080 poisoning

Synonym(s): Sodium monofluoroacetate toxicosis, SMFA poisoning

Contributor(s): Rosalind Dalefield, Richard Squires

Introduction

  • Highly toxic pesticide, under strict control in the US and UK. Widely used in New Zealand and Australia by licensed authorities to control pest animals. Dogs are highly susceptible.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Sodium fluoroacetate, also known as Compound 1080 is an odorless, colorless, tasteless poison used for control of rodents, rabbits and, in New Zealand, Brushtail possums.

Predisposing factors

General
  • Infestations of rodents, rabbits, possums, or other pest animals in the local area.
  • Dogs allowed to run free without supervision, or out of direct observation.
  • Dead target species pose the greatest risk to dogs, which may be poisoned by eating carcasses (secondary poisoning).

Pathophysiology

  • Fluoroacetate and its poisonous metabolite fluorocitrate are frequently present in vermin that have died of fluoroacetate poisoning.
  • Fluoroacetate is rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. It combines with acetyl CoA to form fluoroacetyl CoA, which then combines with oxaloacetic acid to form fluorocitrate.
  • Fluorocitrate inhibits acontiase in the citric acid cycle, blocking the Kreb's (TCA) cycle. Cellular energy production and respiration are blocked. Citric and lactic acids accumulate causing an increased anion gap metabolic acidosis. Plasma ionized calcium complexes with citrate, leading to hypocalcemia. The heart and central nervous system are most severely affected by these changes.

Timecourse

  • Clinical signs are generally delayed at least 30 min, and up to 2 h, after ingestion, while fluoroacetate is absorbed and converted to toxic levels of fluorocitrate.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Goh C S, Hodgson D R, Fearnside S M, Heller J & Malikides N (2005) Sodium monofluoroacetate (Compound 1080) poisoning in dogs. Aust Vet J 83 (8), 474-479 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Parton K H (2003) Sodium Fluoroacetate in Clinical Veterinary Toxicology. Ed: Plumlee K H. Mosby.
  • Osweiler G (1996) Toxicology. Williams & Wilkins.

Organisation(s)


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