Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Proteus spp

Synonym(s): P. mirabilis, P. vulgaris

Contributor(s): Richard Walker

Introduction

Classification

Taxonomy

  • Family: Enterobacteriaceae.
  • Genus: Proteus.

Etymology

  • Gk: Proteus - an ocean god able to change himself into different shapes.
  • Lat: mirabilis - wonderful; vulgaris - common.

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Clinical Effects

Epidemiology

Habitat

  • Part of normal flora of gastrointestinal and urogenital tracts, and skin.

Lifecycle

  • Multiplies by binary fission.
  • May undergo conjugation with other Enterobacteriaceae, with transfer of plasmids.

Transmission

  • Endogenous or exogenous infections.

Pathological effects

  • Compromise of immune system → opportunistic infections.
  • Trauma → opportunistic infection → pathogenic.

Diseases

  • Urinary tract infection Cystitis - dogs, cats and horses. Also found in urine of healthy horses.
  • Infections of genital tract, eg epididymitis Orchitis / epididymitis - horses.
  • Otitis externa Skin: otitis externa - dogs and cats, often as a component of mixed infections.
  • Occasionally isolated from cases of respiratory tract disease - horses.
  • More common in foals.

Other Host Effects

  • Part of normal gastrointestinal flora.
  • Part of normal skin flora in some dogs and cats.
  • Part of normal flora of urogenital tract in some horses.

Control

Control via chemotherapies

Susceptibility

  • To a range of antibiotics, including beta-lactams, potentiated sulfonamides and cephalosporins.
  • Equine isolates more typically susceptible to amikacin Amikacin than gentamicin Gentamicin.

Resistance

  • A problem, as with all enterobacteria.

Vaccination

  • None.

Diagnosis

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from VetMedResource and PubMed.
  • Kiss G, Radvanyi S & Szigeti G (1997) New combination for the therapy of canine otitis externa I. Microbiology of otitis externa. JSAP 38(2), 51-56.
  • Gaastra W, van Oosterom R A, Pieters E W et al (1996) Isolation and characterisation of dog uropathogenic Proteus mirabilis strains. Vet Microbiol 48(1-2), 57-71.
  • Bijlsma I G, van Dijk L, Kusters J G & Gaastra W (1995) Nucleotide sequences of two fimbrial major subunit genes, pmpA and ucaA, from canine-uropathogenic Proteus mirabilis strains. Microbiol 141(6), 1349-1357.

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