ISSN 2398-2942      

Notoedres cati (head mange)

icanis
Contributor(s):

Rosanna Marsella


Introduction

Classification

Taxonomy

  • Family: Sarcoptidae.
  • Genus: Notoedres.

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Clinical Effects

Epidemiology

Habitat

  • In burrows in the epidermis of the cat and occasionally dog and fox, and will survive 2 weeks on man.
  • Mites usually found in pockets or nests.

Lifecycle

  • See also Sarcoptes scabiei Sarcoptes scabiei life cycle Lifecycle Sarcoptes scabiei - diagram :
    • Egg.
    • Larva.
    • Nymphs.
    • Adults.

Transmission

  • Transmission by direct contact when probably larvae or newly fertilized females are transferred.
  • Highly contagious and spread rapidly.
  • Mites can survive a few days off host and so transfer by fomites is possible.

Pathological effects

  • Antigens are assumed to be mite feces, secretions and hatching and molting fluids.
  • Immune hypersensitivity reactions seem to be involved.
  • Infiltrating cells are mononuclear cells, eosinophils and mast cells in the vicinity of mites and their burrows.
  • Lesions primarily on ear, head and neck but may spread to trunk, feet and tail.
  • The burrowing mites cause marked thickening, hyperpigmentation and scaling of the skin with alopecia.
  • The severe pruritus causes much self-excoriation with formation of yellowish or brown crusts.
  • Severe infections in kittens can lead to septicemia and death.
  • Miliary dermatitis.

Other Host Effects

  • Obligate parasite.

Control

Control via animal

Control via chemotherapies

  • Ivermectin Ivermectin (300 ug/kg) at least twice with a 2 week interval (unlicensed use).
    Amitraz Amitraz occasionally produces very severe reactions in some animals (not licensed for use in cats).
  • Lime sulfur dips 1x/week for 5 times.
  • Selamectin 1x/month.

Control via environment

  • None required.
  • It may be useful to destroy or wash and dry the bedding.

Diagnosis

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Delucchi L, Castro E (2000) Use of doramectin for treatment of notoedric mange in five cats. JAVMA 216 (2), 215-216, 193-194 PubMed.
  • Foley R H (1991) Parasite mites of dogs and cats. Comp Cont Ed 13 (5), 783-800 VetMedResource.
  • Foley R H (1991) A notoedric mange epizootic in an island's cat population. Feline Pract 19 (5), 8-10 VetMedResource.
  • Song M D (1991) Using ivermectin to treat feline dermatoses caused by external parasites. Vet Med 86 (5), 498, 500-502 VetMedResource.

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