ISSN 2398-2942      

Ixodes canisuga

icanis
Contributor(s):

David Scarff

Synonym(s): British dog tick


Introduction

Classification

Taxonomy

  • Class: Arachnida.
  • Family: Ixodidae.
  • Genus: Ixodes.

Active Forms

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Clinical Effects

Epidemiology

Habitat

On the host
  • Infects dogs, foxes and badgers and occasionally other hosts.
  • Attaches to the head, ears, axilla and inguinal regions and are found all over the body.
Off the host
  • Ticks climb actively into cracks and crevices in wall in kennels and out-buildings where dogs are kept and even have been known to climb into and produce a reservoir of ticks in a false ceiling in a well constructed kennels. Ticks are associated with foxes and their lairs and sheds, etc under which urban foxes sleep.

Lifecycle

  • Eggs.
  • Larva.
  • Nymph.
  • Adult.
  • All the lifecycle stages (larva, nymph and adult) prefer to feed on the dog, fox or badger although they drop off into the environment of the kennel or lair between feeds.

Pathological effects

  • As dogs frequently are infected with many ticks of all stages there can be quite severe pruritus, hair loss and anemia.
  • A basophilic and eosinophilic granulomatous nodule forms around the mouthparts of the feeding tick.
  • The inflamed nodule may persist for some time after detachment of the tick.
  • The pruritus and itching induced may result in scab formation or secondary infection with pustule formation.

Other Host Effects

  • See Ixodes ricinus Ixodes ricinus.
  • Females do not engorge to as great a weight as I. ricinus.

Control

Control via animal

  • Dogs commonly are infected with many ticks + several/most dogs in a kennels will be affected.
  • Spot-ons/collars.
  • Acaricide sprays , washes or sponge-ons should be used as dogs can be infected with all the stages of the lifecycle. While engorged females are easily visible, many nymphs and particularly larvae will be overlooked.

Control via chemotherapies

For treatment
  • Fipronil Fipronil.
  • Phosmet (not licensed for this use in dogs).
  • Fenvalarate (not licensed for this use in dogs).
  • Permethrin (not licensed for this use in dogs).
  • Propoxur (not licensed for this use in dogs).
  • Flumethrin (not licensed for this use in dogs).

Control via environment

  • As the ticks all live in cracks and crevices in the kennels/outbuilding of the dog(s), these should be replaced so depriving the ticks of their hosts or the breeding sites identified and pressure sprayed with acaricide.

Diagnosis

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

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