Canis ISSN: 2398-2942

Capillaria aerophilia

Synonym(s): Eucoleus aerophilia, C. aerophilia

Contributor(s): Stephen Barr

Introduction

Classification

Taxonomy

  • Taxonomic tree.

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Clinical Effects

Epidemiology

Habitat

  • Adults in trachea and bronchi of dog, fox, coyote, wolf and other wild mammals, and occasionally cats.
  • Infections of the nasal passages are diagnosed as C. aerophila but are likely to be C. boehmi, a closely related parasite of the dog and fox. Differentiated as C. boehmi eggs are 64-60 x 30-35 microns with a surface that is delicately pitted (thimble-like) and containing several cells that do not fill the egg.
  • Eggs in environment.
  • Possibly there is an earthworm paratenic host.

Lifecycle

  • 1. Adults.
  • 2. Eggs.

Transmission

  • Direct feco-oral transmission with fecal excretion of eggs and ingestion of infective eggs.
  • The earthworm might act as a paratenic host.

Pathological effects

  • Not known.
  • No age immunity but disease more common in younger animals.
  • Mild infections are asymptomatic or show a mild cough.
  • Adults embedded for their full length in the mucosa cause a catarrhal inflammation of the trachea and bronchi that produces a wheezing cough, whistling respiration and possibly dyspnea, dullness and unthriftiness with a poor coat.
  • Inhalation of eggs and secondary bacterial infection may lead to bronchopneumonia and possibly death.
  • In nasal capillariasis, hyperemia, hyperplasia and eosinophilic inflammation of the nasal mucosa can lead to sneezing and chronic nasal discharge.

Control

Control via animal

Anthelmintic treatment: Print off the owner factsheet on 'Why and how to treat your dog for worms' to give to your client.
  • Remove from access to eggs in soil runs or fox environment.
  • Consider all in contact with dogs potentially infected.

Control via chemotherapies

  • No conclusive evidence for effective treatment.
    Either Ivermectin Ivermectin (200 mg/kg) (not licensed for use in dogs). Efficacy has been reported for nasal and urinary capillariasis in a few dogs, so it may have benefit in tracheal infection.
    Or Fenbendazole Fenbendazole (20-50 mg/kg/ day) (unlicensed use in dogs). 30 mg/kg for 2 days and repeated 4 times at 4 weekly intervals has reported efficacy in foxes and could be useful, although fenbendazole showed no efficacy for urinary capillariasis.

Control via environment

  • Eggs are susceptible to desiccation in sunlight.

Diagnosis

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers


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